Mahdism and Politics

Mahdism and Politics


“ Doctrine of Mahdiism” is based on the solid principle of divine vow that divine vow which says that end of humanity will be in the best form, and for the fulfillment of this promise formation of a perfect system along with an excellent leader is much necessary. A Leader who will get free from the shackles of tyranny the feeble, the pathetic and the oppressed people, Who will give them the courage to live conceitedly, Who will liberate them from the all types of prejudices like religious, racial, linguistic, economical, theoretical etc. So we can say that “doctrine of Mahdiism” is the doctrine to epilogue the “politics” of oppression, tyranny, injustice, cheating, artifice, exploitation, and self interest and to establish a fair and just global Government. We can use the term “MahdaviState” for the state established on the true, fair and just politics introduced by the divine religion (Islam). So according to the “Doctrine of Mahdiism” we believe on the formation or establishment of a Government and State;

1. with the formation of which Almighty Allah will predominant His religion on all religions of the world and people will penetrate in that true religion in large number, 

2. whose laws and political philosophy will be according to the golden teachings of Islam and Quran the teachings which are exactly according the nature of human beings, 

3. Where plenty of justice will be available to every one with out any difference or discrimination. 

4. Where so called western concept “equality before law” will enforce in true and practicable form. 

5. Where the concept Might is Right will not provide the basis for International Law but it will work on the basis of good temperament, equality, justice and brotherhood. 

6. Where mere empty claims of human rights will not rule but each and every one will live according to their fundamental rights. 

7. Where eternal and durable peace will be maintained.

“Doctrine of Mahdiism” is the doctrine to have firm belief on the establishment of fair, just, equitable and peaceful political system being in vogue by the reformer of the World as known by different names in different Religions. We know Him as “Mahdi Mau’ood” the son of Holy Prophet and will establish true political system according to the Islam. Under this doctrine of Mahdiism we believe on the presence of “alive and vanished” Imam who is living among us, supervising our fair activities, helping and guiding us in difficulties or crisis. Now we are waiting for a Day when He will appear and while terminating the political system based on tyranny, oppression, exploitation, injustice, self interest, cheating and artifice will establish a “fair and just political system”. The system which God Almighty wanted to get enforce through His Prophets, that Political system for which every Imam In His epoch tried to execute, It is the best political system which works for the welfare, guidance, Reformation, Plenty of justice, Providing human rights to each and every one with out any discrimination.

So the divine vow that this Government will be the Govt. in the leadership of the most pious person of this world, the people, in the old times, which were made weak in this earth. The most important thing which we must remember while discussing this doctrine is this all things which are under discussion are the mere principles on the basis of which doctrine of Mahdiism stands so either Imam(as) is ruling visibly on this earth or not the principles will remain the same. Now it is our greatest responsibility to adopt those principles or strategies and try to get them enforce, it is also a part of this sacred doctrine. Simply we can say that we must not mere wait for any pertinent situation when the reformer of the world will come and work for the betterment of society instead of this we have to level the ground to adopt those political strategies and have to form a fair and just Government. It will drag us near to the “Mahdiism”.

“Mahdiism” is not mere a part of Islamic doctrines but it is a symbol of that hope which all humanity in spite of their different believes keep securely in their hearts. “Doctrine of Mahdiism” is actually is the interpretation of that sweat dream in which all humanity according to their different religious affiliations are waiting for a day when all divine religions will get perfect objectives with the all connotations in them and the exhausted or fagged journey in the history will finish consolatory on the destination of peace and prosperity. This perception of expected pleasant future not only limited to the people having belief on supernatural phenomena but we can observe it in the concepts or believes of those people who completely deny the presence of invisible objects in this universe. So the concept of “Saviour” is older than Islam and also not limited to Muslims society. The special thing which Islam did to this concept is while describing standards, basis and logics Islam has given to this idea a perfect shape and have introduced it as a doctrine the “Doctrine of Mahdiism”. Now it is not necessary to wait for a “strange saviour” who will come in the future and will work for the welfare of humanity but saviour is already here among us and not only we have to wait for the circumstances which will demand His presence necessarily so He may start His greatest mission but have to work for His manifestation, adopt His political strategies and to form a just and fair Government.

Doctrine of Mahdiism and References:

“Doctrine of Mahdiism” was present in Muslims from the origin of Islam and has its solid basis in Quran and Sunnah. Not only Islam has authorities about this doctrine but all the religions in world have this concept in their sacred books.

Mahdiism and Holy Quran:

Chapter: 21, Verse:105
“And verily We have written in the Scripture, after The Reminder: My righteous slaves will inherit the Earth” 

• Chapter:28,Verse:5
“And We desired to show favor unto those who were Oppressed in the earth, and to make them examples And to make them the inheritors” 

• Chapter:51, Verse:9
“He it is who Who hath sent His Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may make it conqueror of all religion however much idolaters may be averse.” 

• Chapter:24, Verse:55
“Allah hath promised such of you as believe and do good works that He will surely make them to succeed (the present rulers) in the earth even as He caused those who were before them to succeed (others); and that He will surely establish for them their religion which He hath approved for them, and will give them in exchange safety after their fear. They serve Me. They ascribe nothing as partner unto Me. Those who disbelieve henceforth, they are the miscreants.” 

So Holy Quran orders us to have firm belief on the day when the eminence and administration of this world will be in the hands of most pious people of this universe and Islam will get prevalence on all religions of the world, these are solid basis for “doctrine of Mahdiism”

Doctrine of Mahdiism and Narrations:

Doctrine of Mahdiism was present in Islam from its origin, So many times Holy Prophet (PBUH) himself talked about Imam Mahdi (as) as the saviour and reformer of the world. According to shi’ah and sunni school of thoughts hundreds of ahadith have been narrated by Him.

Narrations in shi`’ah school of thought:

• Behar ul Anwar vol:51,page:75
“World will not abolish till the time that a person from my sacred family whose name will be Mahdi will not rule over the world” 

• Behar ul Anwar Vol:51, page:74
“Divine inspiration to you people about Mahdi (as), who will become manifest in the time when humanity will suffering separation, anxiety, distress and inconvenience; and the earth will be filled with oppression and tyranny, He will fill it with equity and justice, He will inebriate the hearts of His followers with the eagerness of worship and His justice will be accessible for everyone”

Narrations in Sunni school of thought:

• Sahi Tirmazi Vol:9 page:74
“World will not end till the time that a person from my sacred family whose name will be same as mine He will rule on Arab” 

• Sahi aabi dawood Vol:2 page:207
“Mehdi mau’ood will be from my sacred descendants and from the progeny of Fatima (sa)” 

• Albian page:72
“In the last epoch my adherents will face a lot of obstinacy from the king of the times that will be such affliction that no one have saw such type of calamity, in the result of such disaster this vast land will get scanty for my brethren in faith, earth will be filled with oppression and cruelty. No asylum will be available to believers and in this environment of tyranny and oppression no one will reach to redress their grievances. Then God Almighty will send one of pious person from my sacred generation so He may fill the earth with justice and equity as it would be filled with injustice and tyranny………………..”

So in all the times the famous and learned philosophers of Sunni school of thought have believe on the “doctrine of Mahdiism” but with a little difference with shi`ahs. Only Ibn e khuldoon was the philosopher who opposed about the narrations of Mahdi (as) but even could not deny this hadith;

“In all the times it was famous among the Muslims that in the last era a person from the sacred family of Holy Prophet (PBUH) will emerge who will corroborate the religion of Islam and will prorogate equity and justice even all Muslims will follow him”
(Tab`’ Beirut page: 311)

Doctrine of Mahdiism and Religions of world:

As it is in the very nature of human being that he wants to live with peace and tranquility, with economic and social justice, wants no discrimination on the basis of religion, sect, language, race etc. and wants to continue its journey towards evolution rather than adversity so from the hundred of years he is looking for “the saviour and reformer of the world”, and this concept is not self made but has its basis in the sacred books of these religions, here I will mention some references where this concept has been introduced in the sacred books of different religions of the world:

1. “Zoroaster” in their book “jama sip namah”
2. “Hindus and Brahmans (Hindu priest)” in their books “Dawatak and veed”
3. “Old Testament (Taurah ‘Pentateuch’)” in the book “Maza Meer Dawood”.
4. “New Testament (Bible) in the both “Mi’ti section:24 and Looka section:12”
5. “Chinese and Egyptians”
6. “European Nations”

So the belief, on the manifestation of a great freedom bestowing personality, a Saviour, a Reformer who will eradicate the politic of oppression and tyranny and will establish a Government of equity and justice, is not only present in the eastern nations and religions but it is a “world wide doctrine” and in attendance in different nations having distinct features. But few characteristics are similar among all religions in respect of this doctrine, these similarities are;

a. Roots of this doctrine are in the nature and disposition of human beings. 

b. Even in the preach and provocation of every Prophet this doctrine has a conspicuous status. 

c. Each and every one either he belongs to any divine religion or not has belief on the Political role of the saviour or Reformer of the world. 

d. People having belief on this doctrine have no concept just to wait for him but to struggle for his appearance either practically or by worships and prayers.

Doctrine of Mahdiism and politics: 

Under this heading we will discuss following topics:
i. Concept of Politics in Mahdiism
ii. Western political thoughts and Mahdiism
iii. Contemporary Political Practices and Mahdiism

Concept of Politics in Mahdiism:

From the commencement of humanity “Politics” remained an important element in the “divine Religions”. So to the first human being (Hazrat Adam as) God Almighty have designated him as “Spiritual Successor (Caliph) or vicegerent. Like this every Prophet have been sending with “Religion (a code of life)” and have been assigned a political role in his society as called “a Leader”. Holy Prophet (PBUH) himself before the resurrection used to play political role in society of Makkah as during the brawl to fix “ha’jar e as’vad( black stone of the ka’aba)” He was nominated as mediator to resolve the dispute. During His apostleship Holy Prophet (PBUH) used to receive revelations and deliver the laws and commands of Islam to the people and beside this he was designated as the head of the state and was nominated to administer the affairs of state e.g. established an economic system, gave a liberated judicial system, Provided the basis of International Law as did treaties or covenants and introduced Quran as constitution and equitable civil law in the state of Madina. And while exercising his powers He was given greatest authoritative powers even to interfere in the lives of people; Holy Quran says:

• Chapter:33, Verse:6
“The Prophet is Closer to the believers than their selves………..”

• Chapter:4, Verse:59
“O ye who believe! Obey ALLAH, and obey the Messenger and those of you who are in authority; and if ye have a dispute concerning any matte, refer it to Allah and the Messenger if ye are (in truth) believer in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end.”

After the travelogue of Holy Prophet (PBUH) Series of Prophet hood, Revelation and Legislation of Islamic Jurisprudence stopped but for the subsistence of Islamic Government, enforcement of laws and commands of divine religion, Collective and Political manifesto of Islam a fair and just ruler was necessary who according the traditions of Islam must be “infallible and appointed by God Almighty” as all previous leaders (Prophets) were designated by Him. That’s why Holy Prophet (PBUH) on the suitable occasions with the order of Almighty ALLAH not only introduced Hazrat Ali (as) as “Imam (Leader) and Caliph (vicegerent)” of Muslims but also given the “Concept of Imamat” with reference of 12 Imams in His sacred generation. Concept of Imamat is actually a “true and just political system in society.”

“Doctrine of Mahdiism” is the doctrine to have firm belief on the establishment of fair, just, equitable and peaceful political system being in vogue by the reformer of the World as known by different names in different Religions. We know Him as “Mahdi Mau’ood” the son of Holy Prophet and will establish true political system according to the Islam. Under this doctrine of Mahdiism we believe on the presence of “alive and vanished” Imam who is living among us, supervising our fair activities, helping and guiding us in difficulties or crisis. Now we are waiting for a Day when He will appear and while terminating the political system based on tyranny, oppression, exploitation, injustice, self interest, cheating and artifice will establish a “fair and just political system”. The system which God Almighty wanted to get enforce through His Prophets, that Political system for which every Imam In His epoch tried to execute, It is the best political system which works for the welfare, guidance, Reformation, Plenty of justice, Providing human rights to each and every one with out any discrimination.

Western Political Thoughts and Doctrine of Mahdiism:

Politics as a process and Behavior with Governments:
Modern political thinkers have introduced politics as a process by which decisions are made within groups this term also applied on the behavior with in Governments. So for the above mentioned both qualities the social system must be based on neutrality, justice and equity only then the politics in its true sense can be brought about in the society, the politics which will be able to make fair and just decisions and can show an excellent behavior among Government. In the current world when all the systems remained unsuccessful to show true and fair politics, to establish best political systems for the betterment of humanity, and even remained fail to maintain peace in the world which is basic necessity of every human being only “Mahdiism” fulfills our requirements and introduces true definition of politics, the politics of divine principles the principles which can never get fail and are applicable according to the needs of every times.

Politics a natural institution and a treatise on the science and art of Govt.:
Modern thinkers have said that politics is observed in all human groups interactions and many non human groups while Greek thinkers like Aristotle were not conscious of the distinction between things social and political. On the other hand they defined politics as treatise on science and art of Government. Now we can see the beauty in the “Mahdiism” that while Islam granting an important political role to the Reformer of the world announces that the most important thing for any human being is politics and describes it in the very nature of a man and on the other hand Greek Thinkers in 5th century are telling about the structure, rules and regulations of a state while Islam almost 1400 years before given the “doctrine of Mahdiism” and laid all principles to govern a state in it. So as the Islam considered politics in the nature of man this doctrine does not say just to wait for the time when that saviour will come and work for reformations but this doctrine urges a man to keep his struggle continue for the formation of a “Mahdavi state” in the light of principles and basis provided to us, it is true Mahdiism.

Politics in Medieval age (state church controversy):
It was the time when controversy of church state relationship emerged, principle of separate spheres of secular and spiritual authority was introduced which paved way for mankind to come under two different authorities church and state. Machiavelli was the famous thinker of this time who freed politics from the influence of religion and ethics. But with the passage of time west it discovered that religion can never be an individual matter. While the “doctrine of Mahdiism” is based on the solid principle that “no separation between religion and politics in possible”. Mahdiism has a manifesto, constitution and procedural code given by Islam. It is the religion who provides us real and true guide line on every step of life and a politics without the ethical rules of Islam would be just a dictator ship.

Contemporary political practices 
and doctrine of Mahdiism:

Unfortunately humanity has been reached on the hazardous point in the whole history. The sole basis for contemporary politics are “might is right”, self interest especially economical interests. We can see the countries like America, England, Russia, France, Germany and many others giving literal concepts about democracy, human rights, peace and prosperity, equality and justice but what practically going on?? How the violations of human rights being done by major powers and the whole world is like reticent spectators, How the wealth is centralizing in few countries and all others like poor masses beholding them and can not raise a slogan against it, the countries who assert the standard bearer of democracy violate the boundaries of any country, intervenes in it and cause complete disaster there…………no one knew the reason, the only logic is presented that “we want a safer world”, does any rational mind accepts that about what type of safety, security, freedom and democracy they are talking?? Just for holding some financial resources few minds have made the politics of the whole world kidnapped and some are looking for their interests and some others are working just like slaves. But Unlike Mahdiism is a doctrine to eradicate all the social and political evils of prevailing in the society and to help the oppressed and weak people while forming a just and fair Govt. having best political system for the betterment of humanity without any distinction.

Doctrine of Mahdiism and concept 
of state or Government:

Under this subject we will discuss following topics:
i. Evolution of the concept of Government or state under western politics and “doctrine of Mahdiism”
ii. Concept of global Government and “Doctrine of Mahdiism”.
iii. Concept of Democracy and “Doctrine of Mahdiism” 

Evolution of the concept of Government u/western politics and doctrine of Mahdiism:

• Greek political thoughts and Mahdiism:
Plato introduces term of “Ideal state”, considers it panacea for crisis and had firm belief on justice in the state; Aristotle reemphasized on a practicable ideal state and also claimed that state originates in the natural instincts of the individual. Islam was aware of the fact thousands of years ago that state or Government are necessary for all human beings so it has given the concept of welfare state and a political role to its representatives, this principle provides solid basis to the “doctrine of Mahdiism”. The above mentioned definitions lack practicability while the concept of ideal or welfare state given in Islam is completely practicable as 1400 years ago one state was founded and now again every person having belief on “Mahdiism” is a waiter of the formation of state based on the just political system. Under the “doctrine of Mahdiism” Islam describes standards, and criteria for the Ruler of the State as foremost characteristic is that he must be “infallible and nominated by God” so he may show care and concern, may prove kind and generous so the state may play a vital role as a panacea for the crisis.

• Medieval political thoughts and Mahdiism:
St. Thomas Aquinas described the state as ‘God established or natural institution’, He claims that man can not live without society and society must have Government. He says the source of political authority is God who is supreme governor and the people under Him are sovereign and may delegate their authority to any form of Government. We can observe a clear contradiction among the thinkers of same time as we know it was the time when church state controversy emerged but a person living in that time through this statement not only admitting the fault in system but introducing the concept of sovereignty and formation of state under him. While “Mahdiism” is not the doctrine emerged with the passage of time or have changed its standards time by time but the rules settled for it are same as given 1400 years before, We believe that not the basis of the doctrine will get change but the circumstances will pave the way to enforce this doctrine on the world wide level.

• Modern western political thoughts and Mahdiism:
Thomas Hobbes again introduces an ‘ideal state of nature’ wherein every person had equal right to every resource, He also gives concept of ‘social contract’ which is also introduced by other thinkers of modern age like john lock and Jean Roseau. Here we can observe a clear difference in theory and practice even in the so called standards bearer of democratic country( America)distinction have been drawn between dark complexioned and whitish people. While in the “Mahdiism” we believe on the political system without any discrimination based on the principle that “no one has priority on the others except who are the pious persons” and “every one is equal before law without any “discrimination” the foremost feature of “Mahdavi state” is that there can be no contradiction in practice and theory as it is based on divine vow and “God Almighty fulfills His Promise”. Modern thinkers have given the concept of ‘social contract’ according to which men would enter into a contract and would give up absolute rights for certain protections, while in “Mahdiism” without entering in covenant it is the responsibility of the state to facilitate their public with fundamental rights, securities and all necessities of life.

Concept of Globalization and the Doctrine of Mahdiism:

Under this topic we will discuss following headings;
1. Concept of Global Government in the Doctrine of Mahdiism.
2. Evolution of Concept of globalization in the modern society.
3. Basis on which a global Government can be formed under Mahdiism.

Concept of Global Government in 
the Doctrine of Mahdiism:

Islam knows no boundaries and introduces the concept of “a welfare and Islamic state” extended all around the world. Islam introduces the doctrine of Mahdiism with the special term of “just global Government”. As the doctrine of Mahdiism has world wide recognitions, SO all the human beings expect such role of saviour or reformer of the world whose sphere will be broaden all around the world. Islam demands from “Mahdi as” a role of world wide reformer and provides basis for it;

1. He has a designation similar as granted to Prophets and all the previous masoomeen as” who came as spiritual and political leader not for any restricted area but for the all humanity so “Mahdi as” have to play such a role extended to all the human beings in society. 

2. “Mahdiism” gives the concept of equality and justice on every basis e.g. social justice, economical justice, political justice etc And harmony and balance can be established in different areas of the world when they all come under one Government which has a manifesto of the betterment of humanity without any discrimination. 

3. Mahdiism is the fulfillment of divine vow which says that in the last times the earth will be filled with justice and equity and an equitable global Government will be formed for the people suffering afflictions, torments, inconvenience and hardships.

Emergence and evolution of the concept of globalization in western society:

• History:
1. The oldest form of Govt. was tribal organization, ruled by elders, supplanted by Monarchy, often aided by military conquest led to a system of feudalism.

2. The “first era of globalization” is said to have broken down in stages beginning with the “1st world war”, and then collapsing with the crisis of the gold standard in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Countries engaged in that era of globalization including Europeans prospered. Inequality f ell, as goods, capital and labor flowed remarkably free between nations.

3. Globalization in the era since 2nd world war has been driven by trade negotiation rounds, e.g. GATT, WTO, and including bi-lateral or tri-lateral treaties as “
Maastricht treaty” and “the North American free trade”, these treaties have been signed in pursuit of the goals of reducing tariffs and barriers to trade.

• Grounds available for globalization in western as well 
as eastern world: 

In the modern world globalization is source of much debate and controversy about its nature and merits, but following grounds, either negatively or positively been accepted by the mostly people, in regard of concept of globalization;

1. Globalization on the basis of economical progress.
2. Globalization for peaceful purposes.
3. Globalization on the basis of Culture.

Western concept of globalization and Doctrine of Mahdiism:

Supporters of this concept seeing globalization as an economic saviour for the world’s poor and as helping improve quality of life while in this type of globalization oppressing developing countries, destroying local culture and contributing to global warming. This western thought in practice shows “Globalization is an imagined geography; that is, a political tool of ruling neo-liberalists, who are attempting to use certain images and discourses of world politics to justify their political agenda.” Unlike, Globalization introduced in the “doctrine of Mahdiism” is for the benefit of mankind, the eternal and everlasting peace and prosperity, the equality and justice without any discrimination, the balance and harmony and these are not mere empty claims but Mahdiism being a complete manifesto introduces best political strategies for achieving the highest goals.

Basis on which a global Government can be establish 
under doctrine of Mahdiism:

1. The “mental evolution” of people will lead them to the demand of a fair and just global Government so the eternal peace and prosperity may maintain all around the world and that is possible through “Mahdiism”. 

2. Miserable, harassed, oppressed, and distress human being himself will demand for a “saviour” who may keep them safe from the shackles of exploitation of all kind; political, social, economical etc. 

3. Rapid progress of science and technology on one side globalizing the world and on the other side if we will not use this progress in proper way and carefully it will take us toward the path of disaster and destruction, if suitable and compulsory rules and regulations will not put forth a dispersed and distressed situation will create in the world. As we are looking that no system is providing relief to humanity and with the passage of time every system is getting collapse only the “Mahdiism” can provide satisfaction, solace and consolation as it works with divine rules and regulations. 

4. Formation of an equitable global Government by the reformer or saviour of the world is a divine vow and will be fulfilled by the supernatural authority; it is an important feature of “Mahdiism”.

Concept of Democracy and Doctrine of Mahdiism:

In the under discussion topic we will discuss following headings:
1. Democracy in the western thoughts and practices
2. Comparative study of Western Democracy and “doctrine of Mahdiism”.

Democracy in western thoughts and its practices:

• Democracy in Western Political Thoughts:
Simply modern politics describes that; Democracy is, literally, “rule by the people”. The term democracy is often used in the context of a political state; the principles are also applicable to other areas of governance. Aristotle says democracy is Government by the poor for the poor about a democratic state he claims that “as all born free and equal, all should have equal rights to participate in state irrespective of wealth, virtue and other qualifications.

• Democracy and political practices in states:

The word “Democracy” has acquired a highly positive connotation in much of the world over the 2nd half of the 20th Century, to such an extent that even many dictator ships claims to be democratic and often hold illiberal elections to garner democracy, both internally and internationally. Most Contemporary Political ideologies include at least some form of democracy at some levels of democracy.

• Types of Democracy:
1. Direct Democracy(Pure democracy)
2. Athenian Democracy(ancient democracy)
3. Representative Democracy 

Doctrine of Mahdiism and western Democracy:

1. Islamic state and Mahdiism:
Actually Islam does not give the concept of democracy as given in the western thoughts. Islam introduces democracy with slight difference we can call it limited democracy. Instead of democracy Islam talks about “Islamic Government”. There are two main elements of Islamic Govt. 1) Divine 2) Public. According to the former point, Govt. will be entrust to the people and all the governing people will work as the representatives of God and will be answer able before Him. The latter point talks about the human freedom and consultation in important matters, as Holy Quran given the concept about it. So in a “Mahdavi state” under doctrine of Mahdiism there will not any so called concept of democracy but limited democracy will prevail in real sense it will be “Islamic state”, in which sovereignty belongs to Almighty Allah, Laws given by Him will be enforced, people running the Govt. will use their powers and authorities as entrust, and whose basis on the solid principles of brotherhood, justice, equality, providence of fundamental rights without any difference.

2. A complete system and Mahdiism:
The political system in “Doctrine of Mahdiism” which was introduced thousand of years ago still existing in true ideology as with the passage of time no new standards and criteria are defined for it while west thinkers of every time gives a different definition of democracy. If democracy get prove the best system in west then they need not to introduce Feudalism, Capitalism, Secularism or utilitarianism.

Doctrine of Mahdiism and International Law:

Under this subject we will discuss following headings:
1. Sources of International Law.
2. Important Concepts of International Law.
3. International Law and Doctrine of Mahdiism.

Sources of International Law:
1. International Customs.
2. International Conventions.
3. General Principles of Law recognized by civilized states.
4. Decisions or determinations of the organs of International institutions or judicial/arbitral Tribunals.

Important concepts of International Law: 

Here are some important concepts of International Law playing a vital role in the contemporary politics and even providing a guide line to so many countries to maintain their foreign policy. These concepts are; 

• Intervention (Dictatorial interference of by a state in the affairs of another state for the purpose of maintaining or altering the actual condition of things) 

• State Succession (State succession occurs when a state ceases to exist or a new state formed within the territory of an existing state this concept discusses the effect on the international rights an obligations of state or state concerned) 

• Extradition (Extradition is the delivery of an accused or a convicted to the state on whose territory he is alleged to committed or to have been convicted of a crime) 

• Asylum (political refugee of another state) 

• Settlement of International disputes ( amicable and coercive means are used to resolve disputes) 

• International Transactions ( In regard of Economic purposes covenants are made and treaties are signed) 

• International Organizations (especially formed for peace purposes and security of human rights)

International Law and Doctrine of Mahdiism: 

1. Same in theory and Practice:
In the given concepts of International law and in the practice of state we can observe real contradiction among them while in the “doctrine of Mahdiism” we believe that all fair and just laws will be enforced in their true sense, regarding International Law. 

2. Law provides basis:
In the contemporary politics the concept “might is right” provides sole basis to International Law while according the “Doctrine of Mahdiism” we believe on Mahdavi Govt. it is the Government of law and justice and Islam gives no option to the ruler except to follow the Laws. So International Law will stand on the basis of law and justice and will enforce on the entire world. 

3. Evolution of Concepts:
According the doctrine of Mahdiism we don’t believe that all the prevailing laws will be abolished, a system beyond the expectations of people will be enforced. But all the concepts will evolve and get change according to the reason, justice and equity in the light of Islam.

Doctrine of Mahdiism and Human Rights:

• Initiatives taken by the West for Preservation of Human Rights: 1. Formation of United Nations, execution of the Charter about Human Rights and establishment of Commissions like Human Right Commission, Commission on the Status of Women, Sub- Commission on prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities.
2. Conventions of World wide character have been arranged like European Geneva Convention,1949; Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 1950;American Convention on Human Rights,1969 etc
3. International bill on Human Rights.

• Preservation of Human Rights and Doctrine of Mahdiism:
Rib from which Doctrine of Mahdiism has been introduced excessively is Human right. As introduced in every religion of the world the” saviour” for every miserable, afflicted and oppressed person. In every religion of the world solid basis for doctrine of Mahdiism are Preservation and protection of human rights and to work in this regard without any discrimination. The most important thing in security of human rights is to provide best social and political system as we have some examples here and have above mentioned some institutions working for protection of human rights it is actually collapse of political system in different states as they can not guarantee these rights in their states these institutions are established and work. But in “Doctrine of Mahdiism” we believe on a political system based on justice and equity and works with the divine law as these laws have been alighted for betterment of humanity.

Doctrine of Mahdiism and Liberalism:

The modern concept of liberalism introduced by west is actually not talking about the freedom of man but making him slave of his carnal desires. While famous thinker Jean Roseau himself gives the concept of liberty as ‘freedom to act according to dictates and instincts’, in this way he is introducing a limited liberty. West talks about liberalism but forgets it enforcement in the fundamental rights of freedom of expression, freedom of thinking, and freedom to live ones according to his religion and culture.
It is the doctrine of Mahdiism which gives real concept of liberalism and freedom. We believe that it is only Imam (as) who will come and liberate the man from the shackles of sensual desires because He is not only the Imam (leader) of the lives of people but Imam of souls (a spiritual leader).



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