The Uprising of the Im¡m of the

The Uprising of the Im¡m of the

There are different ¦ad¢ths regarding the day of the uprising of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs). Some say, N£ R£z (Iranian New Year) is the day when the uprising begins while others mention ‘¡sh£r¡’ (Mu¦arram 10) as the day. A number of ¦ad¢ths say Saturday while others say Friday as the day of the uprising. There is no contradiction for it to be on N£ R£z and ‘¡sh£r¡’ at the same time because the two are calculated based on the Islamic solar and lunar calendars respectively, and the occurence of these two occasions at the same time as well as their coincidence with either Friday or Saturday is possible. What seems problematic and contradictory is the mention of two days of the week (Friday and Saturday) as the day of the uprising. This group of ¦ad¢ths, however, can also be reconciled, for if we grant that the chains of transmission of the ¦ad¢ths are authentic, then the ¦ad¢ths that specify Friday as the day of advent [¨uh£r] allude to the day of the advent and uprising [qiy¡m] while those that specify Saturday can be interpreted to mean the day of the establishment and stabilization of the divine system and subjugation of opponents.[1]

It must be stated that the ¦ad¢ths that regard Saturday as the day of uprising is worthy of consideration in terms of the chains of transmission. But from the same perspective the ¦ad¢ths that mention Friday also do not present a problem.

Now, let us draw our attention to the pertinent ¦ad¢ths:

Im¡m a¥-¥¡diq (‘a) said: “The Q¡’im of ours, the Ahl al-Bayt, will appear on Friday.”[2]

Im¡m al-B¡qir (‘a) said: “It is as if I can see °a¤rat Q¡’im on Saturday on the day of ‘¡sh£r¡’ standing between Rukn and Maq¡m (Mecca) with Jibr¢l (Archangel Gabriel) standing in front of him and calling on the people to pay allegiance to him.”[3]

Im¡m al-B¡qir (‘a) also said: “°a¤rat Q¡’im (‘a) will stage the uprising on Saturday on the day of ‘¡sh£r¡’, the day when Im¡m °usayn (‘a) was martyred.”[4] He (‘a) also said: “Do you know what day—’¡sh£r¡’—is this? It is the day when God accepted the repentance of ¡dam (Adam) and °aww¡ (Eve); the day when God split the sea for the Children of Israel, drowned Pharaoh and his legion and made M£s¡ (Moses) triumphant over Pharaoh; the day when Ibr¡h¢m (Abraham) was born; the day when God accepted the repentance of the people of Y£nus (Jonah); the day when °a¤rat ‘¢s¡ was born; and the day when °a¤rat Q¡’im will stage the uprising.”[5]

Another ¦ad¢th with the same content has also been reported from Im¡m al-B¡qir (‘a),[6] but in this ¦ad¢th the reliability of Ibn Ba§¡’in¢ who is included in the chain of transmitters is debatable.

Im¡m a¥-¥¡diq (‘a) said: “On the night of twenty-third (Dh£’l-°ijjah), there will be a call in the name of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) and on the day of ‘¡sh£r¡’, the day of the martyrdom of °usayn ibn ‘Al¢ (‘a), he will stage the uprising.”[7]

He (‘a) also said: “N£ R£z (Iranian New Year) is the day when the Q¡’im from among us, the Ahl al-Bayt, will appear.”[8]

Announcement of the Advent

The advent of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘a) will be announced first by a heavenly harbinger. Then, while leaning against the Ka‘bah (in Mecca) he (‘a) will announce his advent in inviting to the truth.

The Commander of the Faithful (‘a) said: “When the harbinger from heaven calls, ‘The truth is with the Progeny of Mu¦ammad; if you are looking for guidance and felicity, cling steadfastly to the Progeny of Mu¦ammad (¥),’ °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) will appear.”[9]

Im¡m al-B¡qir (‘a) also said in this regard: “°a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) will appear in Mecca during the ‘Ish¡’ (night) prayer. Having with him the banner and shirt of the Prophet and having performed the ‘Ish¡’ prayer, he will raise his voice, saying: ‘O people! I remind you to remember God and your standing before God (on the Day of Resurrection) while He has completed His proof (in the world) on you, commissioned the prophets, and sent down the Qur’an. God commands you not to associate partners with Him and be obedient to Him and His prophets. Revive that which has been enjoined by the Qur’an to revive, and extinguish that which has been urged by the Qur’an to be extinguished. Be the votaries of the path of guidance and have piety and virtue because the annihilation and doom of the world has come and the trumpet of farewell has already been blown.

‘I invite you toward God and His Messenger, the implementation of His Book, the annihilation of falsehood, and the revival and restoration of the life conduct [s¢rah] of the Prophet (¥).’ Then, he will appear in the midst of his three hundred and thirteen companions.”[10]

The Slogan on the Flag of the Uprising

Every government has a flag by which it can be recognized, and uprisings and revolutions also have particular flags whose logos bespeak of the objectives of their leaders. The global revolution of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘a) has also a specific flag on which a slogan has been inscribed. Of course, although there are differences with respect to the slogan on his flag, there is a common point in all the statements and that is: It invites the people to obey him (‘a).[11]

Now, it would suffice to mention some pertinent instances:

It has been recorded in a ¦ad¢th: “It is thus written on the flag of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs): ‘Listen and obey him’.”[12]

Elsewhere, we read: “The slogan of al-Mahd¢’s (‘atfs) flag is al-bay‘atu lill¡h [the allegiance for the sake of Allah].”[13]

The Gladness of the People of the World for the Uprising

It can be understood from the ¦ad¢ths that the uprising of al-Mahd¢ (‘a) will bring delight to the people of the world. This gladness and pleasure has been expressed in various forms. Some ¦ad¢ths mention the gladness of the inhabitants of the heaven and the earth while others say the gladness of the dead ones. Some ¦ad¢ths discuss the people’s reception of the uprising and others mention their wish for their dead to be revived.

Here, we will quote some of these ¦ad¢ths:

The Messenger of Allah (¥) said: “All the inhabitants of the heaven and the earth—the birds, beasts of prey, and fishes of the sea—will be happy and glad at the advent of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs).”[14]

The Commander of the Faithful ‘Al¢ (‘a) said in this regard: “When °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) appears, his blessed name will be mentioned on different tongues and people will be so full of love for him that no name other than his will be on their minds and tongues and friendship with him will enliven their spirits.”[15]

The phrase “yashrib£na ¦ubbuh”—“they are imbibing his love”—has been used in ¦ad¢th where love for him has been compared to water or a pleasant beverage, which the people will drink with the utmost pleasure and their love for him will influence their existence.

While enumerating the painful events and seditions prior to the advent of al-Mahd¢ (‘a), Im¡m ar-Ri¤¡ (‘a) said concerning the progress and relief after the advent [¨uh£r]: “At that time, progress and relief will be experienced by the people such that the dead will wish for a new life.”[16]

Im¡m a¥-¥¡diq also said in this regard: “It is as if I can see the Q¡’im (‘atfs) sitting on the pulpit of K£fah and wearing the armor of the Messenger of Allah (¥).” Then, he (‘a) mentioned some of his characteristics and continuing, he said: “No believer will be left in the grave without having such a delight and rejoicing that the dead will visit one another and congratulate each other on his advent.”

In some ¦ad¢th the phrase “tilka’l-farajah”—“progress in the affair”—has been used. By the blessing of his advent, the dead will be revived, and based on this report, the grandeur of the movement and leadership of the uprising will be such that it will also impact upon souls.[17]
Deliverance of the Deprived

There is no doubt that the uprising of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) will lead to the establishment of justice and the uprooting of all deprivations from human society. In this section, we will examine the steps he (‘a) will take at the time of the uprising for the oppressed and the deprived, which will render him as the sanctuary of the deprived.

The Noble Prophet of Islam (¥) said: “The Mahd¢ (‘atfs) will appear from my ummah. God will send him as the redresser of the people’s grievances. At that time, the people will live in grace.”[18]

The Messenger of Allah (¥) did not confine the redresser of grievances to a particular sect or nationality; rather, by using the word “n¡s” [people or mankind] he (¥) regarded him (‘atfs) as the savior of all human beings. Prior to his advent, therefore, the state of affairs will be such that all peoples of the world would pray for his advent.

J¡bir said: Im¡m al-B¡qir (‘a) said: “°a¤rat Mahd¢ will appear in Mecca… God will relieve the land of °ij¡z (through him) and he (‘a) will set free the prisoners from among the Ban¢ H¡shim.”[19]

Ab£ Ar§¡t said: “(From Mecca) °a¤rat Mahd¢ will go to Medina and set free the prisoners from among the Ban¢ H¡shim. Then, he will go to K£fah and set free again the prisoners from among the Ban¢ H¡shim there.”[20]

Sha‘r¡n¢ said: “When °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) arrives in the west, the people of Andalus (Spain) will meet him, saying: ‘O Wal¢ [Friend] (and Proof) of Allah! Assist the Iberian Peninsula as it and its people have been in perdition.”[21]

The Role of Women in the Uprising of Im¡m al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs)

In studying the ¦ad¢ths on the role of women before and after the advent of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs), we find a few important points need to be made. Although some ¦ad¢ths say that most of the followers of Dajj¡l (Anti-Christ) would consist of the Jews and women,[22] there would be also faithful and chaste women, who had experienced hardships in preserving their faith, and would have been profoundly affected by the state of affairs prior to the advent [¨uh£r].

Some women would possess firmness of stance and jih¡d-like spirits, and wherever they go, they would expose the inhuman essence of the Dajj¡l as part of their propaganda war against him.

Some ¦ad¢ths say that during the uprising of al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) four-hundred women will accompany him and most of them will be engaged in activities concerned with health and medical treatment. Of course, there is disagreement in the ¦ad¢ths concerning the number of women who will be accompanying al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) during his uprising. Some ¦ad¢ths mention thirteen women who will be with °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) during his advent, who perhaps would be among his earlier forces. Other ¦ad¢ths have mentioned seven thousand eight hundred as the number of women who will assist him (‘atfs), and they are the women who will accompany him (‘atfs) after the uprising and help him (‘atfs) in many activities.

In the book, Fitan, Ibn °amm¡d said: “The number of the faithful at the coming of Dajj¡l will be twelve thousand men and seven thousand seven or eight hundred women.”[23]

The Messenger of Allah (¥) said: “‘¢s¡ ibn Maryam (Jesus the son of Mary) will descend from heaven in the midst of eight hundred men and four hundred women who would be the best inhabitants on the surface of the earth and the most righteous of the people of the past.”[24]

Im¡m al-B¡qir (‘a) said: “By God, three thousand or so will come and there will be also fifty women from among them.”[25]

Mufa¤¤al ibn ‘Umar said: Im¡m a¥-¥¡diq (‘a) said: “Thirteen women will accompany °a¤rat Q¡’im.” I asked: “What they will be doing and what role they will play?” He (‘a) replied: “They will treat the wounded and attend to the sick just like what the [female] companions of the Messenger of Allah (¥) were doing.” I asked: “Will you mention the names of the thirteen women?” He (‘a) said: “They are Qanw¡ the daughter of Rash¢d, Umm Ayman, °ab¡bah W¡labiyyah, Sumayyah the mother of ‘Amm¡r ibn Y¡sir, Zubaydah, Umm Kh¡lid A¦masiyyah, Umm Sa‘¢d °anafiyyah, ¥iy¡nah M¡sha§ah, and Umm Kh¡lid Jahaniyyah.”[26]

In the book, Muntakhab al-Ba¥¡’ir, two women with the name of Wat¢rah and A¦bashiyyah have been mentioned and they have been considered as among the companions and supporters of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs).[27] Some ¦ad¢ths have only mentioned the existence of women among those who will accompany him (‘a) and have not mentioned their number.
The Historical Background of the Women Involved in the Advent

In the ¦ad¢ths Mufa¤¤al ibn ‘Umar has clearly mentioned the number of women who will accompany °a¤rat al-Q¡’im (‘a) at thirteen but among this number only nine have been introduced by name and description. Im¡m a¥-¥¡diq’s (‘a) emphasis on the names was meant for us to study their biographies and salient features, and after research we obtained some points that give a convincing indication to a possible reason behind Im¡m a¥-¥¡diq’s (‘a) emphasis on mentioning their names.

Each of these individuals has her own special features, but all of them have shown their own merits in the struggle against the enemies of God. Some, such as Siy¡nah, the mother of martyrs, have also attained martyrdom in a heartrending manner. Others such as Sumayyah had endured the most difficult tortures in the path of defending their Islamic convictions, and remained steadfast till the last breaths in defending their faith. Another group such as Umm Kh¡lid had deprived themselves of the favor of having healthy physical bodies and became disabled for the sake of preserving Islam. Another group such as Zubaydah had never exchanged Islam for the glitters of the world and material fortune. On the contrary, they utilized those facilities in the way of faith and helped patronize the °ajj, which is one of the important manifestations of Islam and pillars of the religion. Yet another group had the honor of being wet nurses of the leaders of the Islamic ummah and rearing outstanding children while they themselves possessed lofty spiritual stations proverbial to all and sundry. Some of them had been from the family of martyrs and they themselves had carried their half-dead bodies and talked with them.

Yes, they have blazing hearts, who by demonstrating those acts of bravery, have proved that they could take part in shouldering the heavy burden of the global Islamic government.

Now, we will embark on introducing a number of them:
1. Siy¡nah

It is stated in the book, Kh¡¥¡’i¥ F¡§imiyyah: “In the government of al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs) thirteen women will be revived and return to the world to treat the wounded. One of them is ¥iy¡nah who had been the wife of °izqayl (Ezekiel) and hairdresser of the daughter of Pharaoh. Her husband, °izqayl (Ezekiel), was the cousin and treasurer of Pharaoh. It has been said that °izqayl is a believer from the family of Pharaoh and believed in M£s¡ (Moses), the prophet of his time.[28]

The Prophet (¥) said: “During the night of ascension [mi‘r¡j] on the way between Makkah al-Mu‘a¨¨amah (Holy Mecca) and Masjid al-Aqs¡ (in Jerusalem) I suddenly smelled something pleasant, which I had never smelled before. I asked Jibr¡’¢l (Archangel Gabriel): “What is this pleasant smell?” He answered: “O Messenger of Allah (¥)! It is that of the wife of °izqayl; she believed in °a¤rat M£s¡ ibn ‘Imr¡n (Prophet Moses, the son of Amran) and used to hide her faith. She used to work as a hairdresser in the harem of Pharaoh. One day, she was busy dressing the hair of Pharaoh’s daughter when the comb suddenly fell from her hand and she inadvertently said, “Bismill¡h” [in the name of Allah]. Pharaoh’s daughter asked her: “Do you worship my father?” She answered: “No, but I do worship the One Who has created your father and will take him away. Pharaoh’s daughter hurriedly went to her father and said: “The woman who dresses hair in our palace has faith in M£s¡ (Moses). The Pharaoh summoned and asked her: “Do you not recognize my divinity?” ¥iy¡nah answered: “I will never turn away from the Real Lord and I will never worship you.” The Pharaoh ordered a cupreous furnace be set ablaze and as the furnace became red-hot, he ordered all her children thrown into the fire in her presence.

At the moment when they wanted to take her sucking baby in her arms and throw him into the fire, ¥iy¡nah was moved and became inclined to disavow her religion when suddenly, by the decree of God, the child spoke and said to its mother: “O mother! Be patient for you are on the right path.” The soldiers of Pharaoh threw ¥iy¡nah and her sucking child into the fire and burned them alive. Their ashes were poured into this very ground and until the Day of Resurrection this ground will have this pleasant scent…”[29]

She is among the women who will be revived and returned to the world and render service under the command of °a¤rat al-Mahd¢ (‘atfs).
2. Umm Ayman

Her name is Burkah. She was a bondwoman of the Prophet (¥) who took her as an inheritance from his honorable father, ‘Abdull¡h ibn ‘Abdil-Mu§allib, and she took the responsibility of attending to the Messenger of Allah (¥).[30]

The Prophet (¥) used to address her as mother and say: “She is among the surviving members of my family.” She had a son from her first husband, ‘Ubayd Khazarj¢, whose name was Ayman. Ayman was among the migrants [muh¡jir¢n] (from Mecca to Medina) and the strugglers [muj¡hid¢n], and he attained martyrdom in the Battle of °unayn.

Umm Ayman is the person who, when intense thirst overpowered her on the way to Medina from Mecca (during the migration) and was about to die, a bucket of water was sent down to her from heaven. When she drank from it, she never became thirsty again.[31]

She cried profusely during the death of the Prophet (¥). When they asked her for the reason behind her profuse crying, she said in reply: “By God! I knew that he (¥) will pass away, but I’m weeping because of the termination of revelation.”[32]

In relation to the issue of Fadak, F¡timah az-Zahr¡ (‘a) introduced her as a witness and testifier, and she finally passed away during the Caliphate of ‘Uthm¡n ibn ‘Aff¡n.
3. Zubaydah

She is wife of H¡r£n ar-Rash¢d[33] and had been one of the Sh¢‘ah. When H¡r£n was informed of her faith, he swore to divorce her. She was famous for doing good deeds. At the time when a goatskin of water cost one gold d¢n¡r in Mecca, she gratuitously gave water to the pilgrims and perhaps to the people of Mecca as well. By constructing tunnels across the mountains, she brought water to Masjid al-°ar¡m from a place 10 miles away. Zubaydah had a hundred bondswomen all of whom were memorizers [¦uff¡¨] of the Qur’an. Each of them was obliged to read one-tenth of the Qur’an so much so that from her place of residence the loud voice of Qur’an recital, like the buzz of bees, could be heard.[34]
4. Sumayyah the Mother of ‘Amm¡r ibn Y¡sir

She was the seventh person to embrace Islam and on account of this, she was subjected to the most horrible tortures. When the Prophet (¥) got to see ‘Amm¡r and his parents and seeing them on the hot ground being tortured in the scorching heat of Mecca, he said to them: “O family of Y¡sir! Be patient; you have to know that your meeting place is heaven.”

Finally, Sumayyah attained martyrdom from the spear of the bloodthirsty chief, Ab£ Jahl, and she became the first woman martyr in Islam.[35]
5. Umm Kh¡lid

When the governor of Iraq, Y£suf ibn ‘Umar, martyred Zayd ibn ‘Al¢ in the city of K£fah, he also cut off the hand of Umm Kh¡lid for the “crime” of being a Sh¢‘ah and supporting Zayd’s uprising.

Ab£ Ba¥¢r said: “We were in the company of Im¡m a¥-¥¡diq (‘a) when Umm Kh¡lid came with her amputated hand. He (‘a) said: ‘O Ab£ Ba¥¢r! Do you want to listen to the speech of Umm Kh¡lid?’ He answered: ‘Yes and I would be pleased to listen to her.’ Umm Kh¡lid went up to the Im¡m (‘a) and started delivering a speech. I knew her for having perfect eloquence and fluency. He also spoke to her about the issue of wil¡yah and the disavowal of enemies…”[36]
6. °ab¡bah W¡libiyyah

Shaykh a§-±£s¢ regarded her as among the companions of Im¡m al-°asan (‘a) while Ibn D¡w£d considered her as among the companions of Im¡m al-°asan, Im¡m al-°usayn, Im¡m as-Sajj¡d, and Im¡m al-B¡qir (‘a). Others have regarded her as among the companions of the first eight Im¡ms, i.e. up to Im¡m ar-Ri¤¡ (‘a). It has also been said that Im¡m ar-Ri¤¡ (‘a) buried her in his own personal shirt. She was more than 240 years old at the time of death. She returned to her youth twice. The first time was through the miracle [mu‘jizah] of Im¡m as-Sajj¡d (‘a) and the second time was through the miracle of the eighth Im¡m (‘a). It is she on whose stone she was carrying that the first eight Infallible Im¡ms inscribed their seal one after the another.[37]

°ab¡bah W¡libiyyah said: “…I said to the Commander of the Faithful (‘a): ‘May God shower His mercy on you! What is the proof of your Imamate [im¡mah]?’ He (‘a) said in reply: ‘Bring that small stone to me.’ I brought it to him (‘a). ‘Al¢ (‘a) sealed it with his ring such that the seal was inscribed on the small stone, and then he said to me: ‘O °ab¡bah! Anyone who claims the Imamate and has succeeded in inscribing his seal on this stone the way I did is an Im¡m obedience to whom is obligatory. The Im¡m is he who knows whatever he wishes.’

I continued my usual occupation till the Commander of the Faithful (‘a) departed from this world. Then, I went to see Im¡m al-°asan (‘a) who succeeded ‘Al¢ (‘a) when the people were asking him questions. When he (‘a) saw me, he said: ‘O °abb¡bah W¡libiyyah!’ I said: ‘Yes, O my leader!’ He (‘a) said: ‘Take out that thing with you.’ I brought it out and gave the small stone to him (‘a). He, like ‘Al¢ (‘a), inscribed a seal with his ring on the spot where the previous inscribed seal was.

After a bit of time, I went to Im¡m al-°usayn (‘a) who was then in the Mosque of the Messenger of Allah (¥). He (‘a) asked to me to come to him. He welcomed me and said: ‘The proof for the thing you want exists. Do you want to see the sign of Imamate?’ I replied: ‘Yes, O my chief!’ He (‘a) said: ‘Take out that thing with you.’ I gave the small stone to him. He (‘a) stroke his ring against it and his seal was inscribed therein.

After Im¡m al-°usayn (‘a), I went to Im¡m as-Sajj¡d (‘a) and I had become so old by then that I was trembling all over; I was one hundred and thirteen years old. He (‘a) was then in the state of bowing [ruk£‘] and prostration [suj£d], and did not pay attention to me. I lost hope in obtaining the proof of his Imamate. He (‘a) pointed to me with his forefinger and through this I became young again. I said: ‘O my chief! To what extent has passed from the world and to what extent remains?’ He replied: ‘As to what has passed, yes, but as to what has remained, no; that is, we have knowledge of the past but the future is part of the unseen [ghaybah] which is known to no one except God, and it is not expedient for us to say anything about it.’ Then he (‘a) said to me: ‘Take out that thing you have.’ I gave the stone to him (‘a) and he put his seal on it. As time passed by, I went to Im¡m al-B¡qir (‘a) and he also put a seal on that stone. After him I went to Im¡m a¥-¥¡diq (‘a) and he also inscribed a seal. After the passage of many years, I went to Im¡m al-K¡¨im (‘a) and he also inscribed his seal on it. After him I went to visit Im¡m ar-Ri¤¡ (‘a) and he also inscribed his seal on it.” Thereafter, °ab¡bah remained alive for nine months.[38]



[1] The specification of Friday vis-à-vis Saturday and N£ R£z vis-à-vis ‘¡sh£r¡’ as the day of uprising in two sets of ¦ad¢ths can also be reconciled in another way. It is possible that the day of uprising falls on a Saturday (N£ R£z, or ‘¡sh£r¡’) in the eastern part of the world while it is still the preceding Friday (N£ R£z, or ‘¡sh£r¡’ as the case may be) in the western part of the globe. For example, 9:40 am of a certain day in Tehran, Iran (GMT +03:30) is still 7:10 pm the preceding day in Hawaii, USA (GMT -10:00). [Trans.]

[2] Ithb¡t al-Hud¡h, p. 496; Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, vol. 52, p. 279.

[3] Shaykh a§-±£s¢, Ghaybah, p. 274; Kashf al-Ghammah, vol. 3, p. 252; Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, vol. 52, p. 290.

[4] Kam¡ludd¢n, vol. 2, p. 653; Shaykh a§-±£s¢, Ghaybah, p. 274; At-Tahdh¢b, vol. 4, p. 333; Mal¡dh al-Akhy¡r, vol. 7, p. 174; Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, vol. 52, p. 285.

[5] Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, vol. 52, p. 285.

[6] At-Tahdh¢b, vol. 4, p. 300; Ibn ±¡w£s, Iqb¡l, p. 558; Khar¡’ij, vol. 3, p. 1159; Was¡’il ash-Sh¢‘ah, vol. 7, p. 338; Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, vol. 98, p. 34; Mal¡dh al-Akhy¡r, vol. 7, p. 116.

[7] Shaykh a§-±£s¢, Ghaybah, p. 274; Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, vol. 52, p. 290.

[8] Al-Muhadhdhab al-B¡ri‘, vol. 1, p. 194; Kh¡t£n¡b¡d¢, Arba‘¢n, p. 187; Was¡’il ash-Sh¢‘ah, vol. 5, p. 228; Ithb¡t al-Hud¡h, vol. 3, p. 571; Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, vol. 52, p. 208.

[9] Al-°¡w¢ Li’l-Fat¡w¡, vol. 2, p. 68; I¦q¡q al-°aqq, vol. 13, p. 324.

[10] Ibn °amm¡d, Fitan, p. 95; ‘Aqd ad-Durar, p. 145; Saf¡r¢n¢, Law¡’i¦, vol. 2, p. 11; Ibn T¡w£s, Mula¦im, p. 64; ¯ir¡§ al-Mustaq¢m, vol. 2, p. 262.

[11] Im¡m al-B¡qir (‘a) said to Ab£ °amzah: “It is as if I can see the Q¡’im from among us, the Ahl al-Bayt, entering Najaf and when he reaches the innermost point of Najaf, he will hoist the banner of the Messenger of Allah (¥). Once the banner is unfurled, the angels who were present at the Battle of Badr will descend upon him.” ‘Ayy¡sh¢, Tafs¢r ‘Ayy¡sh¢, vol. 1, p. 103; Nu‘m¡n¢, Ghaybah, p. 308; Kam¡ludd¢n, vol. 2, p. 672; Tafs¢r Burh¡n, vol. 1, p. 209; Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, vol. 52, p. 326.

[12] Ithb¡t al-Hud¡h, vol. 3, p. 582; Bi¦¡r al-Anw¡r, vol. 52, p. 305.

[13] Ibn °amm¡d, Fitan, p. 98; Ibn ±¡w£s, Mul¡¦¢m, p. 68; Al-Qawl al-Mukhta¥ar, p. 24; Yan¡b¢‘ al-Mawaddah, p. 435; Ash-Sh¢‘ah wa’r-Raj‘ah, vol. 1, p. 210.

[14] ‘Aqd ad-Durar, pp. 84, 149; Al-Bay¡n, p. 118; °¡kim, Mustadrak, vol. 4, p. 431; Ad-Durr al-Manth£r, vol. 6, p. 50; N£r al-Ab¥¡r, p. 170; Ibn ±¡w£s, Mal¡¦im, p. 142; I¦q¡q al-°aqq, vol. 13, p. 150.

[15] Al-°¡w¢ Li’l-Fat¡w¡, vol. 2, p. 68; I¦q¡q al-°aqq, vol. 13, p. 324.

[16] Khar¡’ij, vol. 3, p. 1169; Shaykh a§-±£s¢, Ghaybah, p. 268.

[17] Ithb¡t al-Hud¡h, vol. 3, p. 530.

[18] ‘Aqd ad-Durar, p. 167.

[19] Ibn °amm¡d, Fitan, p. 95; Ibn ±¡w£s, Mal¡¦im, p. 64; Al-Fat¡w¡ al-°ad¢thiyyah, p. 31; Al-Qawl al-Mukhta¥ar, p. 23.

[20] Ibn °amm¡d, Fitan, p. 83; Al-°¡w¢ Li’l-Fat¡w¡, vol. 2, p. 67; Muttaq¢ Hind¢, Burh¡n, p. 118; Ibn ±¡w£s, Mal¡¦im, p. 64.

[21] Qur§ub¢, Mukhta¥ar Tadhkirah, p. 128; I¦q¡q al-°aqq, vol. 13, p. 260.

[22] A¦mad ibn °anbal, Musnad Ibn °anbal, vol. 2, p. 76; Firdaws al-Akhb¡r, vol. 5, p. 424; Majma‘ az-Zaw¡’id, vol. 7, p. 15.

[23] Ibn °amm¡d, Fitan, p. 151.

[24] Firdaws al-Akhb¡r, vol. 5, p. 515; Kanz al-‘Umm¡l, vol. 14, p. 338; At-Ta¥r¢¦, p. 254.

[25] ‘Ayy¡sh¢, Tafs¢r ‘Ayy¡sh¢, vol. 1, p. 65; Nu‘m¡n¢, Ghaybah, p. 279.

[26] Dal¡’il al-Im¡mah, p. 259; Ithb¡t al-Hud¡h, vol. 3, p. 75.

[27] Bay¡n al-A’immah, vol. 3, p. 338.

[28] Riy¡¦¢n ash-Shar¢‘ah, vol. 5, p. 153; Kha¥¡’i¥ F¡§imiyyah, p. 343.

[29] Minh¡j ad-Dum£‘, p. 93.

[30] T¡r¢kh a§-±abar¢, vol. 2, p. 7; °alab¢, S¢rah, vol. 1, p. 59.

[31] ‘Abd ar-Razz¡q, Mu¥annif, vol. 4, p. 309; Al-I¥¡bah, vol. 4, p. 432.

[32] Tanq¢¦ al-Maq¡l, vol. 3, p. 70.

[33] H¡r£n ar-Rash¢d: the ‘Abbasid caliph who reigned from 180-193 AH (786-809 CE) and was the contemporary of the seventh and eighth Im¡ms, M£s¡ al-K¡¨im and ar-Ri¤¡ (‘a). [Trans.]

[34] Tanq¢¦ al-Maq¡l, vol. 3, p. 78.

[35] Asad al-Gh¡bah, vol. 5, p. 481.

[36] Mu‘jam Rij¡l al-¦ad¢th, vol. 14, pp. 23, 108, 176; Riy¡¦¢n ash-Shar¢‘ah, vol. 3, p. 381.

[37] Tanq¢¦ al-Maq¡l, vol. 23, p. 75.

[38] Al-K¡f¢, vol. 1, p. 346; Tanq¢¦ al-Maq¡l, vol. 3, p. 75.

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