Ð1? {vd,&J h om"u(tydkif; 1)? Ð

Ð1? {vd,&J h om"u(tydkif; 1)? Ð

مقالات مرتبط

  1? (1961)ckESpf 'DZifbmvxkwf tpPvmrfh rdwfqufrnfaom pmapmifwGif[m uif(rf) q&'fq&fz&m;Zf[dkpdkif;(ef)qdkolrS {vD,qdkaomacgif;pOfjzifh avhvmawG@&Sd csuf tcsKd@udk az:jycJhavonf? xdkodk@ avhvmawG@&Sdcsufrsm;rSm u|Efkyfwdk@. cH,lcsuf udk vSpf[azmfusL;aeygaom a=umifh ,Hk=unfr_udk cGeftm;jzpfap&eftwGuf wpdwfwa'o tm;jzifh taxmuftul ðyaeouJhokd@&Sdonf?

                2? u|Ekfyfwdk@ taejzifh pma&;q&mESifh ‚if;a&;om;cJhaom ta=umif;t&may: ÉD umzGifhcg tqHk;tjzwfay;&ef rvdktyfay? ta=umif;rSm {vD, (0g) tvDonf urBmwGif xif &Sm;ausmf=um;aom xl;jrwfyk*~dKvfwpfyg;qdkonfudk c&pf,mefbmomrS bkef;awmf}uD;rsm; pGmESifh omoemjyef@yGm;a&; t oif;aygif;rsm;pGmwdk@u vufcHcJh=uonf? xkd@a=umifhyif 'vef'ef'òrd@ -pdef@ay:vf- ausmif;wdkifq&mawmf bDa&Smhyf&bf a*sbD *vm'Hk;onf 4&mpk ausmf 5&mpkcef@twGif; orRmusrf; "rRa[mif;ESifh "rRopfrSaumufE_wfI a&;om;cJhaom pmtkyfwGif [Db±l; a&S;a[mif;pmaywGif avhvmawG@&Sd&aom atmvD, (odk@) attDvD qdkaom a0g[m& pum;vHk;rsm;rSm xm0&to#if (0g) zef qif;&Sif (tv†m)[k t"dy`g,f roufa&mufay? odk@aomf aemifumvwGif atvD, (odk@) attDvD jzpfxGef; ay:aygufrnf[k rnfolr# urBmod&ef r!¸ef;cJhay[l.?

                3? c&pf,mefjyef@yGm;a&;toif;rStoif;om;wpfOD;u atvD, (0g) attDvDonf xm0&to#if (tv†m) r[kwfovdk/ atvDpf eAD atvD ,m;pf(t-p)vnf; r[kwf/ *|ef-eAD ,mh,m(t-p)vnf;r[kwfovdk/ *sDpuf eAD tDpm(t-p)vnf; r[kwf[k±kd;&Sif;pGm0efcH xm;.? *sDpuf eAD tDpm(t-p)aemuf yGifhay:onfh yk*~dKvfomv#if jzpfonf[l.? tu,fI c&pf,mefwdk@ taejzifh tvD(t-p)ESifh ‚if;. xif&Sm; vGef;aom 0daoo vuQ%m&yfrsm;udk avhvmawG@&Sd+yD;aemuf vufrcHEdkif ao;ygv#if atvD,(0g) attDvDqdkaom a0g[m&rSm bmompum; jcm; em;r_a=umifh oHwla=umif;uGJ jzpfavhjzpfx&Sdonfh oabmudk em;rvnfI r [kwfwef&m/ pdwfa&maxG;r_a=umifh rwifrus jzpfae&jcif;yif jzpfrnf?

                4? txufyg azmfjycsufrsm;udk axmuf&_I ,cifuom 'atvD, (0g) attDvD / rnfolrnf0grSef; uGJjym;cJhv#if ppfa=umoHk;oyf&ef rvdktyfay/ oufqdkif&mbmomw&m; rsm;.txifu& yk*~dKvfrsm;rSm atvD, (0g) attDvDonf ‚if;wdk@twGuf ta&;ygaomtcsdef tcgrsm;wGif tm;xm;ar#mfvifh&ef tcsuftcsmusa=umif;ESifh yx0Dajrjyif}uD;wGifwefcdk;=o Zm}uD;rm;aom apmifroljzpfa=umif;tjyif ‚if;wdk@. tusyftwnf;rsm; twGufxdkyk*~dKvf xHrStultnD &&SdEdkifa=umif; od&Sdem;vnfxm;=uonf?

t&Sif c&pfo#e wrf;jcif;?

                5? t&Sif c&pfo#eonf yefa'0ESifh aum&0wdk@t=um; ppfcif;r_Y c±ko#oet&yf&Sd ppfajrjyifodk@ a&muf&Sdaomtcg trSefw&m;bufrS &yfwnfaom aemufvdkufrsm;rSmvufw qkyfpmr#om &Sdawmhonfudk olo wdxm;rdvdkufonf? qef@usifjcm;em;olrsm;buf wGif usKdif;aumifrsm; v,f uGif;wGif jzef@v#uf ttkyftoif;zGJ@aeouJhodk@ES,f &Sdonf? t&Sif c&pfo#e onf ‚if;. &J&ifhaom aemufvdkufAdkvfygrsm;udk &J&Jawmuf rdef@cGef; ¹rGuf =um;+yD;aemuf 0rf;vsm;arSmufv#uf atmufygtwdkif; qkawmif;cJhavonf? "tdk xm0&to#ifjrwf/ urBm}uD;udk zefqif;awmfrlaom to#if jrwf/ aumif;uifESifh ajr}uD;udk zefqif;awmfrlaom to#ifjrwf/ to#if jrwf. emrawmfjzifh tpðyIvnf;aumif;/ to#ifjrwf ESpfoufawmfrljcif; cH&oludk wdkifwnfIvnf;aumif;/ ausmufwHk;teuf teD;&SdurBmh t}uD;qHk; 0wfðyAdrmefwGif xl;jcm;ajymifajrmufonfh pGef@pm;r_rsm;udkjyornfh a&G;cs,fcH t[fvD qdkoltm; wdkifwnfIvnf;aumif; u|efawmfrsKd;. 0wfðyqk awmif;r_tm;em;qif awmfrlvSJ@yg/ rdkufrJaom rdp>mwdk@tm; zsufpD;òzdcGif;I trSefw&m;bufrS &yfwnfolrsm; tm; atmifjcif; ay;oem;awmfrlvSJ@yg/ tdk to#if {v {v {v ?

                6? t&Sifc&pfo#e. qkawmif;ywWempmyg pum;vHk;wdkif;onf xif&Sm;vS+yD; teD;pyfqHk; rCeumppfa=um&ef vdktyfonf? ‚if;. 0wfðyqkawmif;r_wGif tmumaumif; uifESifh yx0Dajr}uD;wdk@. zefqif;&Siftm; qnf;uyf qkawmif;cJhyHkrSm tvGef±kd;pif; vS.? xdk@tjyif qkawmif;r_xJY to#ifjrwf. ESpfoufawmfrljcif; cH&ol (rdk[rR'f - qG)ESifh to#ifjrwf a&G; cs,fcH (tvD- t²p)wdk@vnf; yg0if+yD; aemufqHk;wGif {v[k (3)}udrf &GwfqdkcJhavonf?

                7? "t[fvD" onf a&S;a[mif; ouUw a0g[m&wpfckjzpf+yD; t &ADbmom&yfwGif tvD(odk@)tmvD[k t"dy`g,f&onf? xkd@tjyif t&Sif c &pfo#e udk,fwdkif ‚if;wrf;w cJhaom "t[fvD" onf rnfoljzpfa=umif; azmfjycJhavonf? ‚if;. qkawmif;ywWemwGif"t[fvD"onf ausmufwHk; teuf ([*sfa& tufP0'f)teD; urBmht}uD;qHk; 0wfðyAdrmef (utfAm)wGif ol. pGef@pm;r_wdk@udk jyovdrfhrnf[l.? utfAmausmif;awmfonf tpPvmrf ray:rSD t&ifua&m ,ckyg urBmht}uD;qHk; 0wfðy&m Adrmefjzpfonf? aemuf qHk;Y t&Sif c&pfo#e onf {v [k (3)}udrf xyfrH&GwfqdkcJhavonf?

                8? odk@ygI {v rnfolenf;[k ar;p&m &Sdvmjyefonf? xdka0g[m&udk pma&;olxH rS rar;jref;bJ 0D'D,moD yef'DpUf [dENLbkef;awmf}uD;. zGifhqdkcsufudk avhvm=unfh onfhtcg ouUw bmompum;onf tvGef a&S;usaom bmompum; jzpfonf? xdkpmay bmom &yfwGif tDvqkdaom rl&if; pum;vHk;rS t[vf / t[fvD / {v qdkaom a0g[m& pum;vHk;rsm; qif;ouf aygufzGm;vmjcif;jzpfonf? tDvqdkonfrSm *k%ft*Fgjrifhrm;jcif;/ tqifhtwef; &Sdjcif;[k t"dy`g,f&+yD; t[vf/ t[fvD/ {vrSm jrifhjrwfaom *k%ft*Fg&Sif/ tqifhtwef; &Sdol[k t"dy`g,f&onf? a&S;a[mif; a0'pmayrsm;wGif xdkuJhodk@aom pum;vHk; rsm;pGmudk awG@&SdcJh&+yD; ,if;pum;vHk;rsm;onf t&ADbmompum;rS ul;ajymif;vmjcif; (odk@) ouUw bmomrS t&ADodk@ ul;ajymif;oGm;jcif; jzpfEdkifonf[l.?

                9? tqdkyg yef'pUf bkef;awmf}uD;. &Sif;vif;csuft& t&Sif c&pfo#e onf qkawmif;ywWemðy&mY tvD(t-p)xHrS tultnD&,l&ef't[fvD' [koHk;E_H;+yD; {v [k txyfxyf &Gwfqdkor_ ðycJhonf? tb,fa=umifhqdk aomf Tjrifhjrwfaom trnfudk &Gwf qdkjcif;onf ‚if;. qkawmif;ywWem wGif tajccHusaom tcsufjzpfonf? tu,fI xdkodk@ r[kwfbl;qdkv#if ouUwbmom u|rf;usifaom ynm&Sifrsm;onf t[fvD (odk@) {v qkdaom pum;vHk;. tjcm; t "dy`g,fwpfckudk zGifhjyapvdk.? xkd@tjyif urBmay: Y t}uD;qHk; 0wfðy Adr`mefESifhausmufwHk;teufonf tb,fae&mY &Sda=umif; azmfjyapvdk.? xdk@aemuf t&Sif c&pfo#e ajymcJhonfh t[fvD pGef@pm;r_jyrnfh ae&mtm; azmfjyapvdk.?

ZAl;&f (qmvHusrf;)

                10? a';AD;'f(eAD'g0l;'f t²p)ay: usa&mufcJhaom ZAl;&f(qmvH) usrf; rl&if;rSm tDA&D bmom&yfpum;jzifh jzpfonf? xdkusrf;wGif azmfjyyg&SdcsufrSm atvDudk *g&0ðy& rnfrSm u|Efkyfwdk@. wm0efjzpfonf? ‚if;. trdef@ukd emcHjcif;jzifh urBmajr}uD;ESifh okcbHkvrf;a=umif;onfwajzmifhwnf; &Sdayrnf? xdkjrifhjrwfaom yk*~dKvfudk ['&f([kdif'&f)[k ac:a0:+yD; tultnDvdktyfolwdk@tm; ulnDaqmifrol jzpfonf? jcaoFhuJh odk@ &J&ifhol jzpf+yD; ol@xHrS tultnD&,l&eftwGuf ol@tjznfhcHu|eftjzpf yDo&ef vl wdkif;tzdk@ wm0efw&yfjzpfonf? (odk@aomf) em;&Sdolrsm; =um;Edkif./ OD;aESmuf &Sdolrsm; em;vnfEdkif./ ESvHk;om;&Sdolrsm; cHpm;Edkif.? xdktcsdefrSm tvSrf;r a0;awmhay? tu,f I ,if;tcsdef ausmfvGefcJhygv#if wzefjyef r&Edkifawmh ay? odk@a=umifh u|Efkyf. ±kyfemrf ESpfyg;onf ‚if;tm; rSDcdktm;xm;ae&ol jzpf ownf;?

                &Sif;vif;csuf? ? vuf&Sdusrf;rsm;wGif tcsKd@pmydk'frsm;udk ðyjyifajymif; vJxm;+yD; tcsKd@tydk'frsm;udk xkyfy,fxm;./ txl;ojzifh rdk[rR'f/ {vD/ zSg aorm/ [pef/ [dkpdkif;(ef) trnfrsm;qdkv#if vHk;0azsmufypfvdkuf=uonf? qD; &D;,m;EdkifiH 'rwfPuyfòrd@&Sd bD a&Smhwpfyg;rS rl&if;usrf;wGif xdktaxmuft xm;rsm;&Sda=umif; 0efcHcJh+yD; tDA&Dbmom jzifh a&;om;xm;aom rl&if;usrf; rSm xdktaxmuftxm;rsm;&Sda=umif; ajym=um;cJhonf? xdk@t jyif tD*spfEdkifiH &Sd rGzfoDwpfyg;rS xdktaxmuftxm;rsm;udk wyftyfawG@jrifcJha=umif; oufaocHcJhonf?

                11? qmvHusrf;yg a'AD;'f (eAD'g0l;'f t²p) ¹rGuf=um;csufwGif ya[Ïd qefaom pum;vHk; wpfckwpfavr#yif ryg0ifay? atvDtm; [dkif'J&f [k ac:qdkvdrfhrnf jzpfa=umif; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; ajym=um;cJhonf? ‚if;trdef@ udk emcHjcif;onf avmuD/ avmukwW&m ESpfÏgaewGif atmifjrifEdkif&eft wGuf tajccHusaom aomhcsufjzpfonf? tvkyfwdkif;udk atmifjrifpGm azmf aqmifEdkif&eftwGuf ‚if;. aus;u|efyDorS jzpfrnf? xdk@tjyif jcaoFh ESifh cdkif; E_dif;xm;jcif;rSm ‚if;onf(tp'Gvfvm) tv†mh[f jcaoFhawmfjzpfaoma=umifh yif/ t vGeftpGrf;xufol[k qdkxm;jcif;rSm ‚if;onf (,'Gvfvm) tv†mh[fvuf awmf/ tv†mh[f pGrf;tm;qdkaom bGJ@awmfrsm;udk ydkifqdkifxm;jcif;a=umifhyif/ odk@a=umifh u|Efkyf(a';AD;'f). ±kyfemrfESpfyg;onf ‚if;tm; rSDcdk tm;xm; ae&ygonf[k ¹rGuf=um;cJh jcif;rSm ol (a';AD;'f) &ifqdkifcJh&aom tcuftcJrsm; t wGuf apmifrr_cH&jcif;udk qdkvdk onf? a';AD;'f (eAD 'g0l;'f t²p)onf Ttqifh udk &&Sdxm;ol jzpfjcif;a=umifh rnfolrqdk tvD(t-p).tod &if0,f rydkuf EdkifcJhygv#if odk@r[kwf ,if;tcsdef ausmfvGefcJhygv#if wrvGefwGif aemifw& ayvdrfhrnf[k qdkvdkjcif; jzpfonf?

eADrsm;udk ulnDol

                usrf;jrwfuk&ftmef oHu¾ pl&m(tcef;)wGif igto#ifjrwfonf oHoxWKudk t xufrSatmufodk@ csay;oem;awmfrlcJh.? ,if;oHoxWKY }uD; us,fjyif;xefvSaom pGrf;tif &Sdayonf? vlom;wdk@tzdk@ tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm; pGmvnf;&Sdonf? xdk@tjyif tv†mto#if jrwfonf ‚if;. eADwrefawmfrsm; tm; tuG,frS (rjrif&bJ) ulnDonfudk odawmfrl&ef csay;awmfrljcif; jzpfonf? (57 ; 25)

               oHoxWKonf ajr}uD;(odk@)awmifrsm;rS xGuf&Sdjcif; jzpfonf? oHoxWK onf rdk;a&uJhokd@ txufrS atmufodk@ usa&mufonfh t&mr[kwfay? rdk; óud;qdk&atmifvnf; usrf;jrwfuG&ftmefwGif rdk;óud;qkdaom a0g[m& oHk;E_H;r xm;bJ oH(['D;'f)[kom azmf jyxm;onf? odk@a=umifh Ttm,wfawmfonf tjzpftysuf wpfpHkwpfckudk &nf!¸ef; aeay onf? ozfpD;&f ÉDum zGifhqdk=uol trsm;pku "m;[kzGifhqdk=uaomfvnf; txuf,HrS usvmaom"m;rSm rnfonfh"m;jzpfa=umif; ppfa=um&efvdktyfonf? xdk"m;onf ZGvfazum;&f omv#ifjzpfonf? tdk[G'fwdkufyGJwGif tvD(t²p)twGuf usa&mufcJh+yD; aumif;uifw ref *sDb&mtD;vf udk,fwdkif (vmzom tDv†m tvD/ vm pdkif;zSg tDv†m ZGvfazum;&f) tvDuJhokd@ &J&ifholr&Sd/ ZGvfazum;&fvdk "m;rsKd;r&Sd[k csD;rGrf;=obmðycJhonf? xdk "m;&Sifonf tv†mESifh tv†mh[f&plvfrsm;tm; tuG,frS ulnDyHhydk;cJha=umif; eAD 'g0l;'f (t²p)rS ZAl;&fusrf;wGif 0efcH xm;jcif;jzpfonf?

aomif&m;of ("rRa[mif;usrf;)

                "rRa[mif;usrf;yg yxru¾ tcef;(49)wGif eAD,mul;Af(t²p)onf ‚if;.om;rsm;udk ac:I aemifumvwGif awG@óuH&rnfh tjzpftysuf wdk@udk a[m=um;awmfrlcJh.? om;i,f &[l 'g(,k') tvSnfhodk@a&mufaomt cg "&[l'g(,k')onf &mZmvSHwHudk udkifqGJ&vdrfhrnf (pdk;pHtkyfcsKyf&vdrfhrnf) ol. tquftEG,fwdk@Y tkyfpdk;jcif; tm%mrSm &SDvl;rvmrD txd +rJ+rHvdrfhrnf"[l.? odk@aomf '&SDvl;' rnfolqdkonfudk azmfjyrxm;ay? xdk@tjyif 'eAD &mul;Af(t²p)'.om;i,f &[l'g bufawmfom;rsm;udk &[l'D[k ac:a0:=u+yD; &[l'D(*sL;)trnfwGifcJhjcif;jzpfonf? xdkokd@ tpOftquf tkyfcsKyfvmcJh=u&m tpPvmrfh wrefawmf jrwf(qG) vufxufwGif r'Demòrd@ESifhrdkif(50)cef@a0;aomae&mY cdkifbJ&fqdkaomcHwyf
}uD;udktcdkiftrmwnf aqmufEdkifcJh=uonf?

               wrefawmfjrwf(qG) vufxuf [D*s&D (7)ckESpfwGif &[l'Drsm;ESifh cdkifbJ&f wdkufyGJ jzpfyGm;cJh&m aemufqHk; tvD(t²p). OD;aqmifr_jzifh cdkifbJ&fcHwyf}uD;udk òzdcGif;EdkifcJh+yD; &[l'Dwdk@. tkyfcsKyfr_rSm qdwfokef;oGm;cJh&onf? vlaygif;(40)wGef; I zGifh§ydwf&aom 'cdkifbJ&f'cHwyf wHcg;r}uD;udk opf&Guftvm; v$ifhypfvdkufaom tm&Afol&Jaumif;trnfrSm tvDjzpfonf[k urBmh*&if;epfpmtkyfwGif rSwfwrf;wifxm; onf?

                xl;jcm;onfrSm wrefawmfjrwf(qG)ESifhtwl wkdufyGJaygif; (34)yGJqifEGJcJh aom armv†mtvD(t²p)onf tm&Afwdk@ xHk;pHt& &efolESifh &ifqdkif&mwGif rdrd rnf olrnf0gjzpfa=umif; uAsmvuFmqkdI aºuG;ausmfavh&Sdonf? tvD(t²p)onf wdkufyGJaygif; (33)yGJwGif tAl\GmvDAf.om; tvD jzpf a=umif; aºuG;ausmfcJh+yD; cdkifbJ&fwdkufyGJ wpfckwGifom - rdrdtarrS rdrdukd [dkif'J&f[k rSJ@ac:cJha=umif;/ [dkif'J&fqdkonfrSm om;aumifudk tvGwfray; wwfonfh usm;jzpfa=umif; aºuG;ausmfcJhavonf?

                "rRa[mif;usrf;yg &SDvl;qdkonfrSm tDA&Dpum;vHk;jzpf+yD; tDA&D -t&AD tbd"gefwGif &SDvl;udk [dkif'&f[k azmfjyxm;onf? t"dy`g,frSmusm;jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif orRmusrf;Y ig(to#if)onf "m;jzifh'%fcwfjcif;cH&rnfh &[l'g (,k'). &mZvSHawmfysuf pD;rnfh tcsdefudk tuJcwfaejcif;jzpf. [k t&Sifxm0&bk&m; rdef@awmfrl.? (a,Zausv 21 ; 13) tcsif; xufjrufaom"m;/ b,fnmra&G; ckwfjzwfavmh/ OD;wnf&m ckwfjzwfavmh/ igonfvnf; vufckyfwD;rnf? xdk@aemuf trsufawmfajyrnf? Tum; igxm0&bk&m; rdef@ awmfrlaom pum;yifjzpf.[lIwnf;? (a,Zausv 21 ; 16-17)

                orRmusrf;yg txufyg tydk'frsm;onf xm0&bk&m;. "m;awmfqdkaomtcef;Y azmfjy yg&Sdjcif; jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif azmfjyyg tydk'frsm;ESifh ywfoufI a[+AJrlwGifr&Sif;vif;yg[k rSwfcsufðyxm;onf? c&pf,mefwkd@taejzifh xm0&bk&m;. "m;awmfudk rnfodk@yif zGifh qkdapumrl &[l'g (,k')wdk@. tkyfcsKyfr_rSm 'cdkifbJ&f'wdkufyGJaemufydkif; wpfpcef; odrf;oGm;& onfrSm ordkif;a=umif;wGif txift&Sm;&Sd.? cdkifbJ&fwdkufyGJonf at rmrf t vD(t²p)({vD,). OD;aqmifr_jzifh atmifEdkifcJh+yD; ,k'wdk@. txifu& ol&J aumif;}uD; r&f[bfrSmvnf; {vD,. "m;csufjzifh ESpfydkif;jzpfcJhav onf? xdk"m;onf aumif;uif,HrS uscJhaom ZGvfazum;&fjzpf+yD; toGm; ESpfzufygav.? b,fnmra&G; ckwfjzwfEdkif.? xm0&bk&m;&Sif tvdkawmftwdkif; ckwfjzwfrnf jzpfI OD;wnf&m ckwfjzwfavmh[k qdkxm;jcif; jzpf.? xdk"m;&Sif. usifh}uHr_udk xm0&bk&m;ocifonf ESpfcsKdufawmfrlI igonfvnf; vufckyfwD;rnf/ ig. trsufawmfajyrnf[kqdkxm;jcif; jzpfonf?

                tcsKyftm;jzifh eAD,mul;Af(t²p)onf om;rsm;udk pk&kH;apI tem *wWdjzpfpOfrsm; a[m =um;cJh&mwGif atrmrftvD(t²p) {vD, ta=umif; omru ‚if;."m;awmf Zlvfazum;&f ta=umif;udkyg a[m=um;awmfrlcJhavonf?

orRmusrf; ("rRopf)

                a,m[ef' oufaoðycsufu Todk@qdk.? a*s±kpvifòrd@rS um [ifESifh vm0Dqkd aom &[l'D trsKd;om;ESpfOD;onf tu|Efkyf rnfolrnf0g jzpfa=umif; pHkprf;&ef a&muf±Sd vmcJh=uonf?

                xdktcg ‚if;rS rn‡if;qdkbJ - u|Efkyfonf ocifa,&_ r[kwfyg[k 0efcHcJh onf? ‚if;wdk@u odk@qdkv#if toifrnfolenf; 'atvD,'vm;[k ar;jref; =uukef.? r[kwfyg[kqdk&m odk@qdkv#if toifonf xdkeAD(wrefawmf)vm; [k ar;jref;=ujyef.? r[kwfyg[k qdkjyef&m odk@jzpfv#if toifrnfolqdkonf udk u|Efkyfwdk@ jyefajzEdkif&ef ajym=um;ygav/ xdkaomtcg ‚if;u u|Efkyfonf a[&Sm,(eAD) a[m=um;awmfrlcJhonfhtwdkif; vGifwD; uEœm&}uD;wGif bk&m; ocif. vrf;pOfbufodk@ toHay; zdwfac:aeolwpfOD;om jzpfonf? ‚if;wdk@ tm; za&pDrsm;bufrS apv$wfcJhjcif; jzpfonf? ‚if;wdk@ESpfOD;onf ol@ tm; ar;jref;&mwGif toifonf a,±_vnf;r[kwf/ atvD,vnf; r[kwf/ xdkeAD (wrefawmf)vnf; r[kwf[kqdkv#if tb,f=umifh AxWdZHr*Fvm ay;aeo enf;[kqdk.? a,m[efu u|Efkyfonf AdxWdZHr*Fvmudk ay;ae.? toifwdk@ t=um; &yfaeolwpfOD;&Sdonf? odk@aomf toifwdk@onf ‚if;tm; rod&Sd=u acs/ tu|Efkyfaemuf vmrnfh yk*~dKvf&Sd.? tu|Efkyfonf ol@zdeyf oJóud;udkyif ðzwfay;&ef xdkufwefolwpfOD; r[kwfay? a,m[efonf a*smf 'efjrpf ygbdkifof tifeD,mqdkaom t&yfwGif AdxWdZHr*Fvm ay;pOftcgu jzpfonf?

                &Sif;vif;csuf? ? a*s±kpvifòrd@rSvmaom &[l'D trsKd;om;wdk@. udk,fpm;vS,f ESpfOD;onf &Sifa,m[eftm; toifatvD,vm; odk@r[kwf xdkeAD(wrefawmf)vm;[kar; jref;cJh.? odk@a=umifh (Áoa&v) tDp&mtDvf rsKd;EG,f0if &[l'Dwdk@onf atvD,ESifh xdk eADqdkaom yk*~dKvfESpfOD;udk pdwf0ifwpm;&SdonfrSm ay:vGifae.? xdk@tjyif &Sifa,m[ef. tajzY toifwdk@ t=um; rwfwyf&yfaeolwpfOD; &Sdonf/ odk@aomf toifwdk@ ‚if;tm; rod&Sd=uacs[k qkdxm;&m &Sifa,m[ef AxWdZH (a&wGifESpfjcif;)r*Fvmay;aepOf ocifa,&_ vnf; twl&Sdaeonf? xdkodk@&Sdaea=umif;udk "rRopfusrf;Y 'ocif a,&_AxWdZHr*Fvm cH,ljcif;tcef;wGif atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyxm;onf? xdktcgwGif a,m[efu tu|Efkyf onf ocifhxHwGif AxWdZHr*FvmcH ,loifholjzpfygv#uf u|EfkyfxH ºuGvmawmfrlygoavm[k qdkI qD;wm;av.? ocifa,&_u bk&m;ocif jyÏmef;awmfrlor#aom tr_wdk@udk vdkuf emaqmif &GufoifhonfjzpfI ,ck ightm; AdxWdZHr*Fvm ay;ygavmh[k rdef@awmfrl.? xdkt cg a,m[efonf oabmwlav.?   (rm 1 ; 9/ 10? vk 3 ; 21/ 22)

                xdk@a=umifh a*s±kpvifòrd@rSvmaom &[l'D trsKd;om;ESpfOD; a&S@arSmufrSmyif a,m[ef AdxWdZHr*Fvmay;cJholwpfOD;rSm ocifa,&_jzpfonf? ar;cGef;t& atvD, (odk@) xdkeADvm; qdkonfudkrl ‚if;u u|Efkyfaemufvmrnfh yk*~dKvfjzpf+yD; u|Ekfyfonf ol@zdeyfoJóud;udk ðzwfay;&efyif xdkufwefolwpfOD; r [kwfay[k qdkcJhjcif;jzpfonf?

aqmfvrGefbk&ifh "rRaw;wyk'f

                aqmfvrGefbk&if (eAD pdkvdkifrm;ef t²p). a&S;a[mif; tDA&Dbmom pmayjzifh a&; zGJ@oDuHk;cJhaom "rRaw;wyk'frSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf? tu|Ekfyf jrwfEdk;&olrSm ±kyf&nfacsmI cGeftm;}uD;yg.? vlwpf aomif;wGif ol@vdkvl wpfa,mufom &Sdyg.? ol. rsufESmonf a=u;0gt qif;&SdI pdefaumif;wpfyGifhuJhodk@ acsmrGwfyg.? ol.qHyifonf v_dif;xv#uf usD;t.tqif;uJhodk@ rJeuf.? ol.rsufvHk;rsm;onf a&pD;onfh acsmif;i,f teD;wGif Edk@&nfcsKd;I&yfaeonfh csKd;iSufwpfaumifuJhodk@vSyg.? ol.yg;wdk@onfaq;yif rsm;/ eH@omaygif;yifrsm;ESifh jynfh0onfh O,smOfuJhodk@ &_csifzG,f aumif;vSyg.? ol.vuf rsm;onf tcsKd;tpm; usyg.? olonf ausmuf rsuf&wem pDcs,fxm;onfh vufpGyfrsm;udkvnf; 0wfqifxm;ayonf? ol.udk,fcEWmonf eDvmausmufrsm;jzifhcs,fvS,fxm;onfh qifpG,f uJhodk@acsmrGwfyg.? ol.aygifwdk@onf a&$zdeyfa'gufcHxm;onfh ausmufjzLwdkifrsm;ESifh wlyg.? olonf jrifhrm;onfh opfuwdk;yifrsm;ayguf&m vAEkefawmifuJhodk@ cHhnm;yg.? ol. E_wfcrf;onf tvGefcspfp&maumif;I ol. tðytrlrSefor#onf tvGefESpfòrd@zG,f aumif;yg.? tdk a,±k&Svif trsKd;o rD; taygif;wdk@ Tum; 'rdk[rR'f'. yHkyef;o¾mefyif jzpfownf;?  (oDcsif; 5 ; 10/ 16)

                &Sif;vif;csuf ? ? aqmfvrGefbk&if "rRaw;yg rsufESmonf tvD(t-p) twGuf oauFww&yfjzpfonf? ta=umif;rSm wrefawmfjrwfu tdk tvD toifhrsufESmonf tu|Efkyf . rsufESmjzpfonf? [k rdef@awmfrlcJh&m aqmfvrGefbk&ifonf olESpfouf&ol rsufESmjzifh tvD (t-p)udk &nf!¸ef;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif wrefawmfjrwf(qG)u tu|EfkyfESifhtvDonf El;&fa&mifjcnf wpfckwnf;rSjzpfonf? [krdef@=um;cJh&m wpfck wnf;aom El;&fa&mifjcnfrS qif;oufvmaom eADESifh tvD(t-p). rsufESmawmfonf xyf wlxyfr#yifjzpfonf? tjcm;wcsufrSm xkdrsufESmawmftm; acsmrGwfaom pdefaumif;wpfyGifh jzifh cdkif;E_dif;xm;jcif; rSm obm0pdefwdk@. oabmt& rsufESmjyif ig;ck ydkifqkdifa=umif; qdkvdkjcif; jzpfonf? pdefudk aea&mif odk@r[kwf tvif;a&mifatmufwGif xm;ygu rsufESm jyifrsm;rS tvif;ig;ck a&mifjyef[yfavonf? xdk@a=umifhyif aqmfvrGefbk &ifonf pdefjzifh cdkif;E_dif;um olcspfcifESpfouf jrwfEdk;&olrSm temtqmr&Sd yuwdacsmrGwfaom (yef*soef) ig;yg;&wemjzpfa=umif; oufaoðycJhjcif; jzpfonf?

                12? ol@rsufvHk;rsm;onf a&pD;onfh acsmifi,fteD;wGif Edk@&nfcsKd;I &yfaeonfh csKd;iSufESpfaumifuJhodk@ vSyg.[lonf atrmrf[pefESifh [dkpdkif;(ef)(t-p)udk qdk vdkjcif;jzpfonf? wrefawmfjrwf(qG)u [pefESifh[dkpdkif;(ef)onf u|Efkyf.rsufpd ESpfvHk;jzpfonf[l.? xdk@tjyif [pefESifh[dkpdkif;(ef)onf u|Efkyf rsufvHk; ESpfvHk;. at;jr&m jzpfonf? [k oG,f0dkuf rdef@qdkxm;jyef.? Edk@ESifh aq;a=umjcif; [lonf jzLpif a=umif; &nf!¸ef;jcif; jzpfonf?

                tvGefxif&Sm; ausmf=um;cJhaom tvFumq&mqtf'D pyfqdkcJhaom tvFum ydk'fwGif to#ifonf t&f&Sfawmfudk pif=u,faomEdk@/ oef@&Sif;aom a&jzifh aq; a=umawmfrl.? xdkuJhokd@ *k%fawmftaygif;ESifh jynfhpHkol rnfolr# r&SdEdkif +yDwum;[l.?

                tD&efEdkifiHom; 'tmpm;&foJh&meD'onf atrmrf[pefESifh [dk pdkif;(ef)(t²p)wdk@twGuf csD;rGrf;axmrem ðyxm;onfrSm eADwrefawmf(qG). puQKESpfuGif;jzpfaom (&Sbf bD;&f) [dkpdkif;(ef)ESifh (&Sbfb&f;)[pefwdk@udk Edk@ESifha&jzifh t&SfawmfwGifpif=u,f pGm aq;a=um;xm; +yDjzpfonf? ‚if;wdk@onf eAD rGwPf\GzSg(qG). puQKtvif; ESpfoG,fjzpf+yD;/ rdcifrSm awmf0ifxdyfacgif (zGga\Grm)jzpfonf? zcifrSm yx0D ajr}uD;. t&Sifo cif (tvD) blol&m;bfjzpfonf [l.? aqmfvrGefbk&ifonf ol tvGef jrwfEdk;olrSm rdk[rR'f(qG)jzpfa=umif; "rRaw; oDuHk;&if; atrmrf[pefESifh [dk pdkif;(ef)(t²p)twGufyg owif;yg;cJh onf? xdk@twGuf rdk[rR'f(qG). puQKESpfvHk;jzifh yrmðycJhjcif;rSm ay:vGifaeygonf?

                15? xdk@tjyif jrwfwref(qG). puQKESpfuGif;udkcsKd;iSufESifhE_dif;,SOfxm;jyef onf? ,if;onf bmomw&m;qdkif&m a'0wm(aumif;uifwref) rsm;wGif xif&Sm;aom E_dif; ,SOfcsuf w&yfjzpf+yD; u|Efkyfwdk@aexdkifaomurBmajr}uD;wGifvnf; xdkuJhokd@E_dif; ,SOfr_rsm;udk awG@jrifEdkifygonf? csKd;ESifh Zifa,mfiSufrsm;onf vlESifh tvGef&if;ESD; vG,f+yD; taxmuftulðy.? ,cifu xdkiSufrsm;udk qufoG,fa&;oHwreftjzpf toHk;ðycJh onf? xdkiSufrsm;onf wrefawmfrsm;. oauFwvnf; jzpfonf? ,cktcgwGif xdkiSufrsm; udk +idrf;csrf;a&;oauFwtjzpf owfrSwfxm;=uonf? ±k&Sm;EdkifiHwGifcsKd;onf Zifa,mf uJhodk@ +idrf;csrf;a&; oauFwjzpfa=umif; avhvmawG@&SdcJh+yD jzpfonf? odk@aomf Oa&myESifh tar&du wcGifwGif csLd;iSufonf '+idrf;csrf;a&; oHwref' jzpfa=umif;udk +idrf;csrf;a&; wdkufyGJ0ifolrsm;. acgif;pD;rsm;wGif csKd;iSufyHkrsm;uoGm;&mae&mwdkif;wGif awG@jrif&ay onf?

                xdk@a=umifh xm0&to#if. +idrf;csrf;a&;vrf;pOf (tpPvmrf)udk [pefESifh [dk pdkif;(ef)(t²p) ESpfyg;rS xdrf;odef;umuG,fvdrfhrnf jzpfa=umif; csKd;iSufESifh yrmðycJh jcif; jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif urBmhvlom;rsm;tm; usrf;jrwfuk&f tmef. tvif;pum;udk ydk@ aqmiftvif;jy=uvdrfhrnf? tjcm;wcsufrSm jrwfwref(qG). puQKtvif;jzpfaom xdkyk*~dKvf ESpfyg;rS &efvdkaeaom urBm}uD;tm; +idrf;csrf;r_ wnfaqmufay;vdrfhrnf?

                tpPvmrfhordkif;wGif atrmrf[pef(t²p)onf tqdyfjzifh vkyf}uHrcH&rD pdwf qif;&Jjcif;tm; udk,fwdkif wnf+idrfaom xdrf;csKyfr_jzifh &efvdkaeolrsm;udk acsr_ef;&ef enf; vrf;woG,fjzpfaom yÉdO%fpmcsKyfcsKyfqdkjcif;jzifh +idrf;csrf;a&;udkvufawG@ taumif txnf azmfaqmifEdkifonfh owif;yg;cJhonf? atrmrf[dkpdkif;(ef)(t²p)onf r'Demòrd@ ukdpGef@I &efrvdkonfh oabmudk vufawG@o&kyfjycg aemufqHk; rv$Jra&Smifom &ef vdkolrsm;ESifh xdyfwdkuf awG@=u&mwGif twkefv_yfbJ }uHh}uHhcHum 0rf;enf;bG,f&m um&fAvmjzpf&yf jzifh urBm}uD;udk }uHhcdkifjcif;Esifh pGef@v$wfjcif;qdkaom ocFef;pmay; tyfcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh aqmfvrGefbk&ifonf "rRaw;wGif wdkuf±kduf wrefawmf rdk[rR'f(qG). trnfudk,lcg OD;acgif;jzifh tvD(t²p)pdefjzifh zSgaorm(p²t) rsufvHk;jzifh atrmrf[pefESifh[dkpdkif;(ef)(t²p)jzpfa=umif;oG,f0dkufcsD;rGrf;axmremðycJhjcif;jzpfonf?

aiGjym;wl;azmf awG@±SdyHk

                16? (1916)ckESpf/ yxrurBmppftwGif; aoa=uysufpD; qHk;&_H;r_rsm;pGmjzifh&if qdkifsawG@óuHcJh&onf? xdkumvtwGif; (AdkifoGvfrdku'uPf) tvfuG'Pf AdrRmefESifh rdkiftenf;i,f uGma0;aom 'tefwm&m'trnf&Sd &Gmi,fav; t eD;rS ajcv#ifwyfzGJ@wpfzGJ@ jzwfoef;cJh=uonf? xdkwyfzGJ@onf &GmteD;&Sd awmif*rlwpfckrS tvif;wef;wpfck xl;qef;pGm xdk;xGufaeonfudk awG@jrif=uo jzifh pl;prf;avhvm&ef csnf;uyfcJh=uonf? xdktcg ajraqG;ESifh ausmufcJrsm; yg0ifzGJ@pnf;xm;aom awmif*rl.tufa=umif;rS,if;tvif; a&mif xdk;xGufaeonfudk awG@jrif=uavonf? odk@jzifh xdkae&mudkwl;azmf =unhf&m 16 aycef@teufwGif tvif;a&mifxGufaeaom aiGoxWKjym;wpfckudk awG@&SdcJh=uonf? t&Snf rSm 2aycGJomom&Sd+yD; teHrSm 1aycGJcef@&Sdonf? xdkaiGjym;udk &&Sd vdkufojzifh yDwd jzpf=uaomfvnf; ±kwfw&uf tvif;a&mif uG,faysmufoGm;r_a=umifhawGa0tHh=ocJh=u onf? aemufqHk; ‚if;wdk@ pcef;cs&mae&modk@ ,laqmifvm+yD; txuft&m&Sdt*FvdyftrsKd; orD; Adkvfr_;attef*&ef'gxH v$JtyfcJh=uonf? Adkvfr_;onf aiGjym;udk "gwfrD;tvif; a&mifatmufwGif =unfh&_avhvm&m tHh=o&ifodrfhcJh&onf? ta=umif;rSm aiGjym;ywfvnf udk tzdk;wef ausmufrsuf&wemrsm;jzifh pDcs,fabmifuGwfxm;+yD;tv,f wGif pmtcsKd@udk a&;xGif;cg a&$jzifh zdk@xm;onf? Adkvfr_;onf rnfonfhbmompum;jzifh a&;om;xm;onfudk em;rvnfaomfvnf; ordkif;0if a&S;a[mif; ypPnf;jzpfa=umif;ESifhv#Kd@ 0Sufcsuf wpfpHkwpf &m &SdEdkifa=umif; t=urf;rsOf; em;vnfcJhonf? TaiGjym;onfAdkvfr_;*&if',fvf. vuf qifhurf;r_jzifh aemufqHk; +Adwdo# ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;t&m&SdS*vbfpwHk;xHa&muf&SdcJh +yD; ‚if;rSwpfqifh +Adwdo# ±kyfºuGif;aA'qdkif&mtzGJ@odk@ v$Jajymif;ay;tyfvdkufonf?

                17? (1918)ckESpfwGif yxrurBmppf +yD;qHk;oGm;&m xdkaiGjym;udk avhvmqef;ppf &eftwGuf +Adwdo#/ tar&duef/ jyifopfESifh tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;rS a&S; a[mif;bmomaA'u|rf; usifolrsm; yg0ifaom aumfrDwDw&yfudk zGJ@pnf;+yD; wm0efay;tyfcJhonf?

                18? ppf}uD;+yD;pjzpfI vkyfief;rSmrwGifus,fEdkifbJvaygif;rsm;pGm=umanmif; cJh&onf? yodk@qdkap aemufqHk;aiGjym;. v#Kd@0Sufcsufudk azmfxkyfEdkifcJh=uonf? aiGjym; ay:a&;xdk;xm;aom pmom;rsm;rSm tvGefa&S;=uaom 'tDA&D'bmom&yfjzpfa=umif;/ aqmfvrGef bk&if."rRaw;jzpfa=umif; om" uðyEdkifcJh=uonf?

toHxGuf                                      t"dy`g,f
1? tv†m[f                                    tv†m
2? t[fr'fatvD                             rdk[rR'ftvD
3? bm[fol;vf                               bol;vf
4? [mpef [mpD;ef                            [pef [dkpdkif;(ef)
5? ,m[fatvD tif(ef)pGom[f          tdk tvD u|Efkyfudk ulnDvSJ@yg
6? ,m[f t[fr'f ruf[fZg               tdk rdk[rR'f vma&mufvSJ@yg
7? ,m,fbm[fol;vf tmum;&SfeD     tdk bol;vf =unfh±_apmifrvSJ@yg
8? ,m[f [mpef tZlrZGm[f              tdk [pef aus;Zl;ðyvSJ@yg
9? ,m[f [mpD;ef bm;&fzl;0f             tdk [dkpdkif;(ef) =unfEl;apvSJ@yg
10? atvD atvD atvD                      tvD tvD tvD
11? trl pdkvdkifrm;ef pG0[f            Tonf pdkvdkifrm;efrS
12? tuPfo*sDbf Zgvg[m 'gzSem         xdkig;yg;tm; wdkifwnfawmif;cHaejcif; jzpfygonf?
13? bZm;oftv†m[furfatvD         tv†mhcGeftm;rSm tvDjzpfownf;?

                20? tqdkygaiGjym;tay: a&;xGif;xm;aom t"dy`g,fudkazmfaqmifEdkifcJh+yD;aemuf qdkvdk&if;udk od&Sd=uaomtcg aumfrDwD tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf wpfOD;udkwpfOD;tjyef tvSef =unfh&_+yD; tHh=owkefv_yfcJh=uonf? aemufqHk;Y aiGjym;tm; trsm;jynfolwdk@udkrjyobJ +AdwdefEdkifiH&Sd {u&mZf jywdkufwGif vHk òcHpGm xdef;odrf;xm;&ef qHk;jzwfcJh=uonf? rsm;r=umrDrSmyif t*Fvef&Sd *kd%f; csKyf bkef;awmf}uD;xH Tta=umif; ayguf=um;cJh&m aiGjym;tm; trsm;jynf olwdk@udk jyo&ef wm;jrpfaom v#Kd@0Suftrdef@w&yf xkyfjyefcJhonf? (1923)ck ESpfwGif xdktrdef@. teH@toufwpfck ay:xGufvmonfrSm 'tu,fI aiG jym;udk trsm;jynfolwdk@ xdawG@Edkifaom jywdkufwGif jyo(odk@) odrf;qnf; xm;v#if c&pf,mef bmomtwGuf tEW&m,f&Sda=umif;ESifh wdrfaumoGm;Edkif jcif;a=umifh omrmefvlrsm; vuf vSrf;rrSDEdkifaom bk&m;ausmif; v#Kd@0Sufcef;wGif odrf;qnf;xm;&ef t}uHðyojzifh t*F vef&Sd bk&m;ausmif; v#Kd@0Sufcef; wGif odrf;qnf;jcif; cH&avawmhonf?

                21? a&cJonf t&nfaysmfoGm;v#if jyef@ESH@pD;qif;oGm;ouJhokd@ trSefw&m;onf oHavSmiftdrf=um;rS jyef@ESH@pD;qif;vmcJhonf? trSefw&m;udk oHavSmiftdrfjzifh csKyf aESmifr&Edkifqdkaom pum;twdkif; aqmfvrGefbk&if. aiGjym;owif;udk bkef;awmf}uD;rsm; rS zHk;zd&ef óud;pm;cJhaomfvnf; owif;ay: xGufvmcJhonf? ta=umif;rSm xGÉfjrwfaom jrwfwref(qG)ESifh tdrfawmfol tdrfawmfom;rsm; ta=umif;t&mudk rnfonfhpGrf;tm;rS ydwfqdk@EdkifpGrf;r&Sdygay? jrifhjrwfaom ig;yg;&wem (yef*soef). vif;a&mifjcnfudk +idrf; owfEdkifpGrf;r&Sda=umif; xdkòrd@&Sd ajymqdk=uaom teH@touf wpfcktm;awG@cJh&matmufyg twdkif; rSwfwrf; ðypkcJh=uonf?

aiGjym;ESifh ywfoufaom ajymqdkr_ rSwfwrf;?

- aomrufP  ?    ? aiGjym;eJ@ ywfoufwJhowif;=um;rdovm;?
- 0DvD,sH   ?    ? tif; =um;rdygw,f/ xl;qef;w,faemf?
- aomrufP  ?    ? 'gqdk tJ'geJ@ ywfouf+yD; b,fvdk,lqovJ
- 0DvD,sH  ?    ? aomruPf&,f 'gu eufeJwJh udpP&yfbJ/ usKyfwdk@ bmoma&; acgif;aqmifawG awmif rpOf;pm;Edkifwm/ 'gayr,fh usKyf æ
- aomruPf ?    ? usKyfqdk+yD; bma=umifh awGa0aewmwHk; qufajymav/ vlwdkif; trSeftrSm; t aumif;tqdk; vGwfvGwfvyfvyf cGJjcm;Edkifygw,f? aemuf 'DudpPu v#Kd@0SufEdkifiH a&;owif; xkyfjyef ajymqkdr_rS r[kwfwm/ a=umufp&m rvdkygbl;/ ajymp&m&Sdwmom &J&J ajymprf;yg?
- 0DvD,sH  ?    ? aomruPf&,f trSeftwdkif; ajym&&if tpPvmrf[m rSefuefwJhbmom qdkwm usKyfpdwfxJrSm odaeovdkvdkbJ/ aoaocsmcsm pOf;pm;=unfh&if a&S;,cifu yGifh ay:cJh=uwJh wrefawmf tawmfrsm;rsm;[m wrefawmf rdk[rR'f yGifhay:r,fh ta=umif; owif; yg;cJh=uw,f? 'ghtjyif wrefawmfrdk[rR'fudk wrf;wcJh=uw,f? oifvufcHcsifcH-rcHcsif ae/ trSefajym&&if usKyfwdk@ orRmusrf;rSm rdk[rR'feJ@ ol@vufaxmufatvDta=umif; azmf jyxm;w,f?
- aomruPf ?    ? tif;/ oifajymwmrSefygw,f? tu,fI bufrvdkufwrf; aumufcsufcs =unfh&if 'gawG[m qmvHusrf;/ "rRa[mif;eJ@ (tDAef*Jvf) w&m;awmf a[m=um;csufrsm;rSmawG@ &w,f/ tJ'Daemuf tpPvmrfhordkif;rSm rdk[rR'f/ tvDeJ@[dkpdkif;(ef)&J@ ajymifajrmuf wJh vkyfaqmifr_rsm;udk avhvmrdawmh uGufuGufuGif;uGif;ay:vmw,f/ tJ'Dvkyfaqmif r_rsm;[m omrmefpGrf;tm;eJ@awmh rjzpfEdkifbl;/ a'0wm(0g)bk&m;ocifzufu pGrf;tm;bJ jzpf &r,f?
- 0DvD,sH  ?    ? usKyfcifAsm;udk cdkifrmwJh ordkif;a=umif;wpf&yfajymjyr,f/ vufrcHbl;qdk &ifvnf; udk,fhta=umif;eJ@udk,f&Sdapawmh/ bk&m;ocif csD;jr‡ifhygapvdk@bJ qkawmif;& awmhrSmaygh/ uk&ftmefusrf;rSm wrefawmf rdk[rR'feJ@ ol@tdrfol§om;rsm;ta=umif; ygw,f qdkwm usKyf=um;bl;w,f/ 'Dawmh tckusKyfwkd@ b,fvrf;a&G;cs,frvJqdkwm pOf;pm;oifh+yD vdk@ xifw,f/ vrf; a[mif;ay: av#mufrvm; 'grSr[kwf vrf;opftwGuf pGef@rvm;?
- aomruPf ?    ? 0DvD,sH&,f cifAsm; ,Hkcsif,Hk r,Hkcsifae/ usKyfuawmh udk,fudkudk,f rGwPfvif(r)tjzpf vufcHvdkuf+yD/ tck oifha&S@rSm jrifhjrwfaom (yef*soef)ig;yg;&J@aus; u|efyDoEdkif&ef usKyfudk,fhudk,fudk tyfESif;ygw,f/ tJ'Dig;yg;&J@ trnfrsm;[m aiGjym; ay: a&;xdk;xm;+yD; jzpfw,f?
- 0DvD,sH ?    ? 'gqdkbmvkd@ tcsdefqGJaerSmwHk;/ usKyfwdk@ tpPvmrfEdkifiHwckckoGm;+yD; ul;ajymif;=uygpdk@?
- aomruPf  ?    ? cifAsm; wu,fajymwmvm;?
- 0DvD,sH  ?    ? ,Hkprf;ygAsm wu,faygh/ usKyfvJ cifAsm;vdkbJ ul;ajymif;vdkuf yg+yD/ 'gay r,fh tpPvmrfEdkifiHoGm;zdk@ rvdktyfygbl;/ tD&efEdkifiHu"rRowfygarmuQ (rG*sfo[D'f) wpfyg; e,l;ump,frSm a&mufaew,fvdk@ od&w,f/ usKyfwdk@ tJ'Dudk oGm;=u&atmifAsm?

                22? xdkyk*~dKvfESpfOD;onf e,l;ump,fòrd@odk@ a&muf&Sdvm+yD;v#if tD&ef EdkifiHrS a&muf&Sdaeaom "rRowf ygarmuQ [pef rk*sfobm oJ[f&meDxH tpPvmrf bmomodk@ ul;ajymif;a=umif; 0efcH*wdðycJh=uonf? aomruPftm; zdkifZvf[dkpdkif;(ef)/ 0DvD,sHtm; umZif; [dkpdkif;(ef)[k ajymif;vJ rSJ@ac:cJhonf? Todk@jzifh (2)ESpfcef@ ae+yD;aemuf (1925)ckESpfwGif xdkyk*~dKvfESpfOD;onf [*sf ESifh aZ,m&wfvkyf&ef ta&AsESifh tD&wfEdkifiHodk@ c&D;xGufcGmcJhonf?

                23? David (eAD'g0l;'f t²p)ay: usa&mufcJhonfh qmvHusrf;ESifh aqmfvrGef (eAD pdkvdkifrm;ef t²p). "rRaw;yg ta=umif;t&mrsm;onf t vGeftdka[mif;cJh+yD jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif aiGjym;yg ta=umif;t&monfvnf; &mpkESpfwpfckeD;yg;cef@yif &Sd+yDjzpfonf? ,ck u|Efkyfwdk@onf 'kwd,urBmppf}uD; +yD;qHk;+yD;aemuf ppfaq;awG@&Sdr_w&yfudk qufvuf avhvm=unfh=uygpdk@?

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